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Section 3 Chemistry of Cells

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1 Section 3 Chemistry of Cells
Chapter 2 Section 3 Chemistry of Cells Grade 10 Biology Fall 2010

2 Bell Ringer What do cooking oil, sugar, and a piece of meat have in common?

3 Objectives Summarize the characteristics of organic compounds
Compare the structures and function of different types of biomolecules Describe the components of DNA and RNA State the main role of ATP in cells

4 Carbon Compounds _____________ contain _______ atoms that are covalently bonded to other elements Typically hydrogen, oxygen, and other carbon atoms Four principal classes of organic compounds are found in living things Carbohydrates,_____, proteins, nucleic acids

5 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates: organic compounds made of_______,_______, and _____ atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1 Key source of energy ____________ : building blocks of carbs, single sugars Ex. Glucose C6H12O6, fructose Simple sugars such as _______ are a major energy source for cells

6 Carbohydrates __________ : double sugars formed when two monosaccharides are joined Ex. Sucrose, consists of glucose and fructose _____________ : chains of three or more monosaccharides Ex. Starch Example of a_____________, large molecule made of many smaller molecules Some function as storehouse of energy, starch and glycogen

7 Lipids Lipids: __________ molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water Include fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes

8 Lipids ____________ make up the lipid bilayer of cell membranes
_________ include cholesterol, found in animal cell membranes

9 Lipids Fats are _____ that store energy
Contains three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule backbone _______= 3-C organic molecule Fatty acid = long chain of C atoms, with H atoms bonded to them Most C atoms in a fatty acid are bonded to either one or two H atoms

10 Lipids ___________ fatty acid: all of the carbon atoms in the chain are bonded to two hydrogen atoms (except the carbon atoms on the end, which is bonded to three hydrogen atoms) Most _______ fats are saturated Saturated fatty acids are relatively straight molecules and are generally _____ at room temp.

11 Lipids ____________ fatty acid: some of the carbon atoms are linked by a “_______” covalent bond, each with only one hydrogen atom, producing kinks in the molecule Most_______, some fish oils are unsaturated Unsaturated fatty acids generally _____ at room temp.

12 Lipids

13 Proteins ______ : usually a large molecule formed by linked smaller molecules called amino acids _________ : the building blocks of proteins __ different amino acids are found in proteins Amino acids can be: polar, non-polar, electrically charged, neutral

14 Proteins Proteins fold into compact shapes depending on how it’s A.A’s interact with water and one another Proteins are found in various areas and play important ________ functions Some proteins are ________ and promote chemical reactions

15 Nucleic Acids __________ : long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides ________ : has three parts a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group, which contains phosphorous and oxygen atoms Two types of nucleic acids- DNA and RNA- and each type contains 4 kinds of nucleotides

16 Nucleic Acids DNA: _______________ acid, consists of two strands nucleotides that spiral around each other ________ contain long strands of DNA, which store hereditary information

17 Nucleic Acids ____ : ribonucleic acid, may consist of a single strand of nucleotides or of based-paired nucleotides RNA plays key roles in _________ manufacturing

18 ATP ATP:_______________, is a single nucleotide with two extra energy-storing __________ groups When food molecules are broken down inside cells, some of the energy in the molecules is stored temporarily in ATP Cells need a ______ supply of ATP to function

19 Review Name a difference and a similarity between RNA and DNA.
Under the microscope the fat substitute that I spread on my toast has 4 double bonds, and 1 triple bond. Knowing this it must be what type of fatty acid? The main organic compound that is used as an energy source is?

20 Answers Difference is RNA is single strand, DNA is double stranded. Similarity they both have nitrogenous bases, sugar backbones, and phosphate groups. Unsaturated fatty acid. Carbohydrates.

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