Presentation on theme: "Section 3 Chemistry of Cells"— Presentation transcript:
1 Section 3 Chemistry of Cells Chapter 2Section 3Chemistry of CellsGrade 10 BiologyFall 2010
2 Bell RingerWhat do cooking oil, sugar, and a piece of meat have in common?
3 Objectives Summarize the characteristics of organic compounds Compare the structures and function of different types of biomoleculesDescribe the components of DNA and RNAState the main role of ATP in cells
4 Carbon Compounds_____________ contain _______ atoms that are covalently bonded to other elementsTypically hydrogen, oxygen, and other carbon atomsFour principal classes of organic compounds are found in living thingsCarbohydrates,_____, proteins, nucleic acids
5 CarbohydratesCarbohydrates: organic compounds made of_______,_______, and _____ atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1Key source of energy____________ : building blocks of carbs, single sugarsEx. Glucose C6H12O6, fructoseSimple sugars such as _______ are a major energy source for cells
6 Carbohydrates__________ : double sugars formed when two monosaccharides are joinedEx. Sucrose, consists of glucose and fructose_____________ : chains of three or more monosaccharidesEx. StarchExample of a_____________, large molecule made of many smaller moleculesSome function as storehouse of energy, starch and glycogen
7 LipidsLipids: __________ molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in waterInclude fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes
8 Lipids ____________ make up the lipid bilayer of cell membranes _________ include cholesterol, found in animal cell membranes
9 Lipids Fats are _____ that store energy Contains three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule backbone_______= 3-C organic moleculeFatty acid = long chain of C atoms, with H atoms bonded to themMost C atoms in a fatty acid are bonded to either one or two H atoms
10 Lipids___________ fatty acid: all of the carbon atoms in the chain are bonded to two hydrogen atoms (except the carbon atoms on the end, which is bonded to three hydrogen atoms)Most _______ fats are saturatedSaturated fatty acids are relatively straight molecules and are generally _____ at room temp.
11 Lipids____________ fatty acid: some of the carbon atoms are linked by a “_______” covalent bond, each with only one hydrogen atom, producing kinks in the moleculeMost_______, some fish oils are unsaturatedUnsaturated fatty acids generally _____ at room temp.
13 Proteins______ : usually a large molecule formed by linked smaller molecules called amino acids_________ : the building blocks of proteins__ different amino acids are found in proteinsAmino acids can be: polar, non-polar, electrically charged, neutral
14 ProteinsProteins fold into compact shapes depending on how it’s A.A’s interact with water and one anotherProteins are found in various areas and play important ________ functionsSome proteins are ________ and promote chemical reactions
15 Nucleic Acids__________ : long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides________ : has three parts a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group, which contains phosphorous and oxygen atomsTwo types of nucleic acids- DNA and RNA- and each type contains 4 kinds of nucleotides
16 Nucleic AcidsDNA: _______________ acid, consists of two strands nucleotides that spiral around each other________ contain long strands of DNA, which store hereditary information
17 Nucleic Acids____ : ribonucleic acid, may consist of a single strand of nucleotides or of based-paired nucleotidesRNA plays key roles in _________ manufacturing
18 ATPATP:_______________, is a single nucleotide with two extra energy-storing __________ groupsWhen food molecules are broken down inside cells, some of the energy in the molecules is stored temporarily in ATPCells need a ______ supply of ATP to function
19 Review Name a difference and a similarity between RNA and DNA. Under the microscope the fat substitute that I spread on my toast has 4 double bonds, and 1 triple bond. Knowing this it must be what type of fatty acid?The main organic compound that is used as an energy source is?
20 AnswersDifference is RNA is single strand, DNA is double stranded. Similarity they both have nitrogenous bases, sugar backbones, and phosphate groups.Unsaturated fatty acid.Carbohydrates.