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Chapter 2 Matter Mixtures Elements and Compounds Chemical Reactions.

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1 Chapter 2 Matter Mixtures Elements and Compounds Chemical Reactions

2 What states of matter are represented?

3 Properties of Matter Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space Mass – amount of matter an object contains

4 Properties of Matter Substance – matter that has a uniform and definite composition Example: Sugar Pure Substance – only contains one kind of matter

5 Properties of Matter Physical Property – a quality of condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substances composition Example: Color, solubility, odor, hardness, density, melting point

6 States of Matter PropertySolidLiquidGas or Vapor Shape Volume Expansion on Heating Compressibility

7 States of Matter PropertySolidLiquidGas or Vapor ShapeDefiniteIndefinite VolumeDefinite Indefinite Expansion on Heating Very SlightModerateGreat Compressibility Almost Incompressible Readily Compressible

8 Physical Changes Cutting Grinding Bending Melting Freezing Boil Dissolve Split

9 Chapter 2.2 Mixtures What is a mixture? How can it be separated?

10 Classifying Mixtures Mixture – physical blend of two or more substances

11 Classifying Mixtures Heterogeneous – a mixture that is not uniform in composition, its components are readily distinguished Example: Salad

12 Classifying Mixtures Homogeneous - a mixture that is completely uniform in composition, its components are not readily distinguished Example: salt water

13 Classifying Mixtures Solution – homogenous mixture Example: Sterling Silver (Copper in silver)

14 Classifying Mixtures Phase – any part of a system with uniform composition and particles

15 Phase Homogeneous mixture – Single Phase Heterogeneous mixture – two or more phases

16 Separating Mixtures Separate physically by shape, size, color, etc… Separate with a magnet, filter Separate by distillation

17 Distillation A liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is condensed back into a liquid Used to separate impurities in liquids

18 Matter MixturesPure Substance Homogenous Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixtures CompoundElements Solution

19 Ch 2.3 Elements and Compounds


21 Distinguishing Elements and Compounds Element – simplest form of matter that can exist, cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means

22 Top Ten Elements in the Human Body – Oxygen65% – Carbon18% – Hydrogen10% – Nitrogen3% – Calcium1.5% – Phosphorus1.2% – Potassium0.2% – Chlorine0.2% – Sulfur0.2% – Sodium0.1%

23 Distinguishing Elements and Compounds Compound – 2 or more elements that combine chemically, can be separated into simpler substances by chemical means

24 Sugar Sugar compound Carbon Element Water Compound + Water compound Hydrogen element Oxygen element + HEAT ELECTRICITY

25 Symbols and Formulas Chemical Symbols – One or two letters – First letter always capitalized – Second letter lower case

26 NameSymbolLatin Name SodiumNanatrium PotassiumKkalium AntimonySbstibium CopperCucuprum GoldAuaurum SilverAgargentum IronFeferrum LeadPbplumbum MercuryHghydrargyrum TinSnstannum TungstenWwolfram

27 Ch 2.4 Chemical Reactions

28 Chemical Reaction – the changing of substances to other substances by the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of bonds in products

29 Parts of a Reaction Reactants  Products Reactants – starting substances Products – substances formed

30 Chemical Property Ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction and form new substances

31 Examples of Chemical Reactions Burn Rot Rust Decompose Ferment Explode Corrode

32 Clues that a chemical reaction has occurred Heat given off Heat absorbed Odor given off Irreversibility

33 Law of Conservation of Mass Total mass of reactants = Total mass of products In any physical or chemical reaction, mass is neither created or destroyed

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