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Classification of Matter

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Presentation on theme: "Classification of Matter"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification of Matter
Chapter 17 Classification of Matter

2 Section 1: Composition of Matter

3 What you will learn……. How to define substances and mixtures
How to identify elements and compounds How to compare and contrast solutions, colloids and suspensions. This is important because you can form a better picture of your world when you understand the concepts of elements and compounds.

4 Teks Objective IPC (7) The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to: 7e:classify samples of matter from everyday life as being elements, compounds, or mixtures.

5 REMEMBER….. Matter Matter- anything that takes up space and has mass.
Pure Substances Mixtures

6 What are pure substances?
have a definite composition can be elements or compounds. Matter Pure Substances Elements Compounds

7 Pure Substance: ELEMENTS
Are pure substances which CAN NOT be broken down through physical or chemical means. Composed of only one kind of atom- all atoms are the same. You can find all the known elements on the Periodic Table of Elements.

8 Pure Substance: ELEMENTS
Examples of Elements: gold, silver, carbon, and hydrogen GOLD- Au SILVER- Ag ALL ATOMS ARE THE SAME!!!

9 Pure Substances: COMPOUNDS
A compound is a pure substance composed of 2 or more elements that are chemically combined in definite proportions. Compounds DO NOT look or act like the elements that make them up. SALT- Sodium Chloride: (NaCl) Chlorine (Cl)- Green Gas Sodium (Na)- Metal WATER- H2O

10 Question? How are elements and compounds related?

11 Answer……. Compound contains 2 or more different elements

12 What are mixtures? Matter MIXTURES
composed of 2 or more different substances that can be separated through physical means can be homogeneous or heterogeneous Matter Mixtures Homogeneous Heterogeneous

13 HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES The composition is the same throughout
Homogeneous mixtures are solutions, so the particles are so small that they CAN NOT be seen through a microscope Light passes through undisturbed Examples: coke, alcohol, iron, pure air, vinegar Vinegar Coke

14 Question What type of mixture is a solution?

15 Answer…… A homogeneous mixture

Matter The composition is NOT the same throughout Examples: salad, soil, gelatin Components can be observed. Can be classified as colloids or suspensions Mixtures Homogeneous Heterogeneous Solutions Colloids, Suspensions

Particles are not large enough to settle. Can be identified by using the Tyndall Effect Shampoo Gelatin

18 Tyndall Effect- Detecting Colloids
Scattering of light beam as it passes through a colloid.

19 Tyndall Effect- Detecting Colloids
The light from the headlights is scattered by fog. The same colloid allows you to see the sunlight as it streams through the trees.

A liquid in which visible particles SETTLE. Muddy Water - Some mud particles will fall to the bottom and the water clears. Orange Juice - Has to be shaken before drinking because

21 SUMMARY Matter Mixtures Pure Substances Heterogeneous Homogeneous
Elements Compounds Solutions Colloids, Suspensions

22 Section 2: Properties of Matter

23 Section 2: Properties of Matter
Teks 8A: distinguish between physical and chemical changes 8C : investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass

24 You will learn……. How to identify substances using physical properties
How to compare and contrast physical and chemical change How to determine how the law of conservation of mass applies to chemical changes This is important because understanding the chemical and physical properties can help you use materials properly.

25 Physical Properties Characteristics which can be observed without changing the chemical composition of the substance

26 Example - Physical Properties
Appearance Size Texture Shape Color State of matter

27 Example - Physical Properties
Behavior magnetic can be drawn out into wires (copper) pounded into sheets (gold) ability to flow Smell (odor) density melting point, boiling point, freezing point

28 Physical Change Change the appearance or state of a substance but NOT it's chemical make-up The identity remains the same Examples: evaporation of water, melting of wax, dissolving of salt in water, breaking of glass

29 Question? Does a change in state mean that a new substance has formed? Explain

30 Answer…… No the identity of the element or compound remains the same

31 Chemical Properties Are characteristics which depend upon the reaction with other materials. Examples: flammability, ability to rust, ability to react with water

32 Chemical Changes Produce new substances that differ in appearance and make-up from the original substance A change of one substance to another is a chemical change Examples: burning, rusting , combustion, rotting, digestion Rusting Burning Combustion

-production of a gas -permanent color change -formation of bubbles or solids in a liquid -production of heat and light Color Change Gas Precipitate

34 Weathering of Rocks by water
Physical or Chemical?

35 Answer…… Weathering can involve both physical and chemical change!

36 Question What is a chemical change?

37 Answer…….. A change of one substance to another

Matter cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical or physical change. Example- If you burn a log, the ashes in the fireplace will be the same mass as the log

39 Video Time




43 CREDITS random/milk.jpg brass.jpg colloida2.htm nw-nw/31482.html Exhibition/ education/water.htm chemistry.htmlJanuary 20, 2003

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