2 Who Are Managers? Manager Someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals
3 Types of Managers First-line Managers Middle Managers Top Managers Are at the lowest level of management and manage the work of nonmanagerial employeesMiddle ManagersManage the work of first-line managersTop ManagersAre responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization
5 Where Managers Work Organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
6 Definition of Management: Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims
7 Definitions of Effectiveness and Efficiency Productivity implies effectiveness and efficiency in individual and organizational performanceEffectiveness is the achievement of objectivesEfficiency is the achievement of the ends with the least amount of resources (time, money, etc.)
8 Managerial Concerns Efficiency Effectiveness “Doing things right” Getting the most output for the least inputEffectiveness“Doing the right things”Attaining organizational goals
9 What Managers Do Managers (or administrators) Individuals who achieve goals through other people.Managerial ActivitiesMake decisionsAllocate resourcesDirect activities of others to attain goals
10 What Do Managers Do? Functional Approach Planning Organizing Leading Controlling
11 Management Functions (cont’d) PlanningA process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.
12 Management Functions (cont’d) OrganizingDetermining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
13 Management Functions (cont’d) LeadingA function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.
14 Management Functions (cont’d) ControllingMonitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
15 Management Functions Planning Organizing Leading Controlling Lead to Defining goals,DeterminingDirecting andMonitoringestablishingwhat needsmotivating allactivitiesAchieving thestrategy, andto be done,involved partiesto ensureorganization’sdevelopinghow it willand resolvingthat they arestatedsubplans tobe done, andconflictsaccomplishedpurposecoordinatewho is to do itas plannedactivities
20 What Do Managers Do? (cont’d) Skills ApproachTechnical skillsHuman skillsConceptual skills
21 Management SkillsTechnical skills The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise.Human skills The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups.Conceptual Skills The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.
22 Exhibit 1.4 Skills Needed at Different Management Levels
23 What Is An Organization? An Organization DefinedA deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purposeCommon Characteristics of OrganizationsHave a distinct purpose (goal)Are composed of peopleHave a deliberate structure
24 Exhibit 1.6 The Changing Organization TraditionalStableInflexibleJob-focusedWork is defined by job positionsIndividual-orientedPermanent jobsCommand-orientedManagers always make decisionsRule-orientedRelatively homogeneous workforceWorkdays defined as 9 to 5Hierarchial relationshipsWork at organizational facility during specific hoursNew OrganizationDynamicFlexibleSkills-focusedWork is defined in terms of tasks to be doneTeam-orientedTemporary jobsInvolvement-orientedEmployees participate in decision makingCustomer-orientedDiverse workforceWorkdays have no time boundariesLateral and networked relationshipsWork anywhere, anytime
25 Management: Definition Acc to Harold Koontz: Management is the art of getting things done through & with an formally organized groupAcc to Henry Fayol: To manage is to forecast & plan, to organize, to compound, to co-ordinate and to controlPODSCORB:- Planning, Organizing, Directing, Staffing, Controlling, Co-ordinating, Reporting & Budgeting
26 Features of Management Art as well as ScienceManagement is an activityManagement is a continuous processManagement achieving pre-determined objectivesOrganized activitiesManagement is a factor of productionManagement as a systemManagement is a discipline
27 Features of Management Management is a distinct entityManagement aims at maximising profitManagement is a purposeful activityManagement is a professionUniversal applicationManagement is getting things doneManagement is needed at all levels
28 Importance of Management Management meet the challenge of changeAccomplishment of group goalsEffective utilization of resourcesEffective functioning of businessResource DevelopmentSound organization StructureManagement directs the organizationIntegrates various interestsStability
29 Importance of Management InnovationCo-ordination and team-spiritTackling problemsA tool for Personality Development
30 Henry Fayol (1841-1925) Was a french industrialist Given : Elements of Management- Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Co-ordination & ControlQualities of Manager: Physical, Mental, Moral, General Education, Special Knowledge & ExperiencePrinciples of Management
31 Principles of Management Division of workAuthority & responsibiltyDisciplineUnity of commandUnity of directionSubordinate of individual interest to group interestRemuneration of personnelCentralizationScalar Chain
32 Principles of Management OrderEquityStability of tenure of personnelInitiativeEspirit De Corps