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1 Car ownership, mileage, and risky driving among young intermediate drivers Presenter: Bridie Scott-Parker, PhD Candidate (Prof Barry Watson, Dr Mark.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Car ownership, mileage, and risky driving among young intermediate drivers Presenter: Bridie Scott-Parker, PhD Candidate (Prof Barry Watson, Dr Mark."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Car ownership, mileage, and risky driving among young intermediate drivers Presenter: Bridie Scott-Parker, PhD Candidate (Prof Barry Watson, Dr Mark King, Dr Melissa Hyde) Australasian College of Road Safety National Conference, Melbourne, 1-2 September 2011

2 Extent of the Problem Young drivers (17-25 yrs) in Australia, 2008 –26% of all road fatalities 80% were male Young drivers (17-24 yrs) in Queensland, 2008 –13% of licensed driver/ rider population –20% of road fatalities –33% of all fatalities involved young drivers/ riders

3 0 6123457 0 Years after licensing 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 No. drivers in casualty crashes Provisional licence phase Learner licence phase Open licence phase Source: Queensland Government, 2005 Casualty Crash Involvement in Queensland by Licence Type

4 Key changes to Queensland’s Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) Program, July 2007 Learner –16 years of age (was 16.5 yrs) –12 month minimum duration (was 6 months) –100 hours supervised practice recorded in logbook Provisional –Two stages (was one three-year Provisional licence) Provisional 1: 12 month minimum duration, night- time passenger restrictions Hazard Perception Test Provisional 2: 24 month minimum duration 4

5 Vehicle Ownership High rates of ownership amongst the most- inexperienced drivers –28% - 70% of novices own car/primary access –Ownership rates increase considerably during Provisional period –Ownership associated with more risky driving Speeding, particularly at night and with friends as passengers Crashes, including ‘hooning’ crash involvement Offences Greater mileage –Longer ownership duration = more offences and crash involvement 5

6 Longitudinal Research Survey 1 1032 drivers 17-19 years (609 females) Queensland-wide sample, recruited April-June 2010 when passed practical driving assessment Experiences and behaviours as a Learner driver Survey 2 6 months of driving with a Provisional P1 licence 355 drivers 17-20 years (247 females) Experiences and behaviours as a Provisional driver 341 drivers provided ownership information 6

7 Results: Exposure Distance Average 175 km/week 52% ≤ 100 km/week Duration Average 7.5 hours/week 87% ≤ 10 hours/week Consistency throughout Provisional period 17% greater exposure at first 47% same exposure throughout 16% greater exposure now 7

8 Results cont. 75% of Provisional drivers owned their own car Crash involvement since gaining their Provisional licence (6 months earlier) –10% of drivers (male = female) Offence detected by Police –18% of males –10% of females 8

9 9 Significant socio-demographic differences CharacteristicOwn car Australian-born Yes No 80.8% 54.8% English-speaking home Yes No 80.2% 40.0% Studying Yes No 74.5% 83.9% Employed Yes No 82.5% 67.1%

10 10 Significant exposure differences CharacteristicOwn carNo car Duration of Learner period M (SD) 15.77 (5.14)18.70 (7.17) Hours in Learner logbook M (SD) 107.03 (16.03)102.48 (20.01) Exposure: Hours M (SD) 7.64 (8.80)6.25 (9.84) Exposure: Kilometres M (SD) 193.42 (170.23)97.73 (96.81)

11 11 CharacteristicOwn carNo car ‘Talk out of ticket’ (punishment avoidance) No 100.0% 77.4% 0.0% 22.6% Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale (BYNDS) M (SD) 77.20 (15.37)72.42 (13.76) Risky Exposure subscale (BYNDS) M (SD) 26.01 (5.00)22.68 (5.16) Significant risky behaviours

12 Other findings of interest 95% of crashes reported by drivers residing in urban areas Provisional drivers who reported a crash as a Learner were less likely to report owning a car Provisional drivers who reported an offence had been detected as a Learner or as a Provisional driver –were significantly more likely to report owning a car –reported significantly greater duration and distance of exposure Provisional drivers who reported more exposure recently reported –less crash involvement –more offences had been detected 12

13 Discussion & Future Research High rate of ownership (75%) among the most inexperienced drivers –Consistent with prior research: no gender differences; owners more likely to be employed; greater exposure; more risky driving, crashes, offences –Inconsistent with prior research: higher ownership rates in rural areas (88% vs 77% in urban areas, ns) –Future research: When do they get the car? Car characteristics? Who pays for it? Is their driving monitored by Mum/Dad? Greater exposure than previously reported (particularly important as self-report is frequently an underestimate) –Future research: When/why driving? Where? With whom? 13

14 Learners who crashed less likely to own a car: Availability issue? Apprehension? Punishment? Every Learner who offended had a car as a Provisional driver: More exposure, offences, crashes, talking out of fine Owners reported a shorter Learner duration and more hours in the logbook: Highly motivated? Vehicle ownership plays a role? Research limitations: S elf-report; Attrition (70% of Survey 2 participants were female) 14 Discussion & Future Research cont.

15 GDL programs may need to incorporate additional education for parents and novices –Family responsibilities frequently change with licensure –Family car may be safer vehicle than young novice driver can afford themselves –Increased risks associated with ownership (more exposure, more risky driving, more crashes, more offences) –Monitor car use (journey characteristics, passenger carriage) 15

16 Researchers have suggested owners are predisposed to risky driving, and the vehicle allows this to happen (psychological states/traits) –No differences in psychological distress (anxiety, depression) –No differences in sensation seeking propensity and sensitivity to reward Suggests traits/states do not influence ownership, rather ownership allows these traits/states to influence their behaviour 16 Discussion & Future Research cont.

17 Conclusions Most novice drivers have their own car within six months of independent driving Owning a car was associated with risky behaviour ( Risky driving, more exposure, crashes, offences) GDL programs should incorporate an education component specifically addressing the increased risks for the novice who owns their car 17

18 18 Questions? Contact Details: Bridie Scott-Parker, PhD Candidate Telephone: +61 7 3138 7727 Email: Mark your Diaries! International Council on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety Conference (ICADTS T2013) August 2013, Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre

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