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Chapter 3: Socialization

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1 Chapter 3: Socialization
Objectives: What is meant by gender socialization and how the family, media, and other agents of socialization teach children to act masculine and feminine based on their sex. Describe some of the gender messages in the family and mass media and discuss how these messages contribute to social inequality between men and women. List the major agents of socialization in American society. Define the term ‘resocialization’ and provide examples.

2 Twenty Statement Test What were some of your responses to the TST? Why do you think you answered the 20 questions that way? What might influence those answers?

3 Socialization into Gender
Gender Socialization: the ways in which society sets children into different courses in life because they are male or female. Family are first to teach symbolic division of gender (ie: pink/blue; Barbie/GI Joe) Peers are also powerful influences in developing gender socialization Mass media also reinforces gender roles: the behaviors and attitudes considered appropriate because one is a female or a male. --advertising, tv, movies, video games

4 Assignment… Find one example of gender socialization in an advertisement/TV show/Movie and it to me (or if it is a paper ad…bring it to me) and write a paragraph to go with it about how it promotes gender socialization and your opinion on gender socialization.

5 Agents of Socialization
Agents of socialization: people or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life Agents: --Family --Neighborhood --Religion --Day Care --School --Peer Groups --Sports and Competitive Success --Workplace

6 Family first group to have impact develops sense of self values and beliefs gives us idea of who we are and what we deserve out of life Studies have found that social class status determines how parents treat children at play --working class: more likely to set limits and use physical punishment --middle class: develops curiosity, self- expression and self-control and more likely to reason with children

7 Neighborhood Poor Neighborhood—more likely to get in trouble with the law, become pregnant, to drop out of school and end up facing a disadvantaged life Affluent Neighborhoods—watch out of children better, know the children and parents, help to keep children out of trouble

8 Religion helps develop values in society extends to many aspects of life teaches not only beliefs, but also ideas about what kinds of dress, speech, and manners are appropriate for formal occasions.

9 Day care defined as: any care other than by the mother—including care by other relatives and the father Children who spend more hours in day care have weaker bonds with their mothers --they are more likely to fight, to be cruel, and to be “mean” Children who spend less time in day care are more cooperative and more affectionate to their mothers --this hold true regardless of quality of day care, social class, or gender of child Positive side: children in day care have higher language skills

10 The School provides latent functions (unintended consequences) for socialization children learn a broader perspective that allows them to see beyond the family and it values Reflect and reinforce social class, economic and political systems (ie: rich kids go to private school, learn skills that “match their position”; blue collar kids are less likely to take college prep classes) Example of school as socialization agent: Page 82, Cultural Diversity

11 Peer Groups Peer Group standards tend to dominate our lives (ie: music, clothing, etc) Kids typically separate themselves by sex and develop group norms --The norms that made boys/girls popular: --boys: athletic ability, coolness, toughness --girls: family background, physical appearance (clothing/makeup), ability to attract popular boys

12 Sports and Competitive Success
Powerful socializing agent Teaches not only physical skill, but also values (ie: teamwork) Boys: gain stature in masculinity = more prestige among peers --encouraged to form instrumental relationships—those based upon what you can get out of them Girls: socialized to construct their identities on meaningful relationships, not competitive success --this is starting to change (sports becoming more apart of girls socialization)

13 The WOrkplace learn not only skills, but also different perspectives of the world The more you participate in a job, the more it becomes part of your identity. _________________________________ Twenty Statement Test (TST)…looking back at your answers, do you think your socialization by these agents influenced your answers?

14 Resocialization Resocialization: the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors. Can occur each time we learn something contrary to our previous experiences (ie: a new boss that does things differently) Can also be very intense (ie: joining AA or a cult)

15 Total Institutions and Degradation ceremonies
Total Institutions: a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and are almost totally controlled by the officials who run the place (ie: Prison) Degradation Ceremony: term coined by Garfinkel to describe an attempt to remake the self by stripping away an individual’s self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place. (ie: perp walk, having hair cut

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