Presentation on theme: "Barry Williams1 Analyzing Learners & Context Dick & Carey, Chp. 5."— Presentation transcript:
Barry Williams1 Analyzing Learners & Context Dick & Carey, Chp. 5
Barry Williams2 Review: Do a Needs Assessment to identify instructional goals
Barry Williams3 Review: Criteria for Estab. Instr. Goals 1. Will the instruction achieve the goal? 2. Are the goals acceptable to the boss? 3. Are there sufficient resources to develop the instruction? 4. Is there enough time for learning? 5. How good is the designer?
Barry Williams4 Review: Set a Goal What do we want the learners to be able to do?
Barry Williams5 Review: Complete a Goal Analysis Goal Analysis - A two-part process used to identify all of the the skills and knowledge that should be included in the instruction.
Barry Williams6 Review: Part 1 The Goal Analysis Step 1. Classify the goal according to the type of learning outcome (domain of learning) –psychomotor, intellectual, verbal information, attitudes
Barry Williams7 Review: Part 1 (cont’d) Step 2. Describe exactly what a student will be doing when performing the goal –using observable verbs like moving, painting, etc. –Decide on the instructional content –What’s going to be taught
Barry Williams8 Review: Part 2 Identify Subordinate Skills For Intellectual or Psychomotor Goals Use Hierarchical Approach –For each step in the goal ask this question: “ What must the student already know so that, with a minimal amount of instruction, this task can be learned?” –Yields one or more subordinate skills
Barry Williams9 Review: Part 2 (cont’d) For lntellectual Skills The subordinate skills should follow Gagne's hierarchy higher-order rules rules concepts discriminations
Barry Williams10 Review: Part 2 (cont’d) For Verbal Information Skills Use Cluster Analysis Identify the information needed to achieve the goal
Barry Williams11 Review: Part 2 (cont’d) For Attitude Goals ask two questions: ?Question # 1 “What must the learner do when exhibiting this attitude?” –answer is almost always psychomotor or intellectual skill (hierarchical analysis)
Barry Williams12 Review: Part 2 (cont’d) ?Question # 2 “Why should the learner exhibit this attitude?” –the answer is usually verbal information –analyzed using a separate cluster or integrated into the basic hierarchical analysis that was done in the first half of the analysis
Barry Williams13 Review: Part 2 (cont’d) Entry Behaviors Identify steps in the procedure for relevant entry behaviors and modify procedural and goal analyses as necessary.
Barry Williams14 New Content - Analyzing Learners Synonyms: –“Target Population” –“Target Audience”
Barry Williams15 Focus Characteristics of the learners Context(s) in which the instruction will be delivered Context in which the skills will eventually be used Try-out learners –specific group, i.e. college students, bakers, etc.
Barry Williams16 Learner Characteristics 1. Entering Behavior 2. Prior Knowledge of Topic 3. Attitude toward Content & Delivery System 4. Academic Motivation 5. Educational Ability Levels 6. General Learning Preferences 7. Attitudes toward the Organization 8. Group Characteristics
Barry Williams17 Context of Performance Setting 1. Managerial Support –little support, little or no skills transfer 2. Physical Aspects of the Workplace –skills practiced in conditions similar to workplace
Barry Williams18 Performance Setting (cont’d) 3. Social Aspects alone or in groups? work independently or with direction? most workers familiar with content or new to everyone? 4. Relevance of the Skills to the Workplace Constraints: physical, social, or motivational
Barry Williams19 Collecting Data for Context Analysis At the site Preplanned May be unannounced
Barry Williams20 Data for Context (cont’d) Purpose: Gather data –utilize workers, managers –any source that will help Output Document –Description. of physical & organizational environment –List of factors that may facilitate or interfere with learner’s use of new skills
Barry Williams21 Context of Learning Environment Determining “what is” and “what should be” –facilities, equipment, & resources
Barry Williams22 The “Cover Your Butt” phase, determine: ?is the site compatible with the instructional mandates? ?is the instructional area adaptable to simulate workplace performance? ?is the site adaptable for using a variety of instructional training delivery approaches? ?what are the constraints present that may affect the design & delivery of instruction? Learning Environment (cont’d)
Barry Williams23 Collecting Data from Learning Environment Similar to analysis of workplace Purpose is to identify : –available facilities –limitations of the settings
Barry Williams24 Data from Learning Environment (cont’d) Procedure: –visit one or more sites –interview instructors, managers and learners –have prepared questions –obtain information about workers’ use of site –determine site limitations
Barry Williams25 Data From Learning Environment (cont’d) Output –description of the extent to which the site can be used to deliver training on skills that will be required for transfer –list of any limitations
Barry Williams26 Evaluation & Revision of the Instructional Analysis One-on-one review of Instructional Analysis with learners –hear yourself explaining steps in the analysis –gauge learner reaction
Barry Williams27 Summary In this chapter, we covered: – the analysis of learners –performance context –and learning context The next step is writing appropriate performance objectives