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Principles of Government

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Government"— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Government
Chapter 1: Principles of Government

2 Section 1: Government & The State
What is Government Institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies Public Policies All the things the Government decides to do

3 What is Government (con’t)
Every Government has three basic powers Legislative To make law and public policies Executive To execute, enforce and administer law Judicial Interpret laws and settle disputes

4 What is Government (con’t)
These powers are determined by a country’s Constitution The body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and process of a Gov’t These powers can be determined by a single/small group of people (dictatorship) or a large majority of the people (democracy)

5 The State A body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically (Aka they have a Government) Called nations or country most often in the news

6 The State (con’t) Requirements to be a state
Must have a population May or may not be homogeneous Sharing common customs, language & Ethnic Must have a territory or boundaries Must have sovereignty Supreme and absolute power within it’s territory Ex. The U.S. Constitution is supreme to the Missouri Constitution Must have a Gov’t

7 Origins of the State The Force Theory Evolutionary Theory Divine Right Theory Social Contract Theory By contract, people within a given area agreed to give up to the state as much power as was needed to promote the safety and well being of all Came about during the Enlightenment from Philosophers Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau Serves the will of the people

8 The Purpose of Government
Preamble is the Thesis statement of the U.S. Constitution “We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

9 Purpose of Government (con’t)
America is about Freedom Constant struggle today… individual freedom versus the “Common Good”

10 Section 2: Forms of Government
Classifying Government Who can participate in the governing process The geographic distribution of government power within the state The relationship between legislative and executive branch

11 Who can Participate Democracy
“Government of the people, by the people, for the people.” Abraham Lincoln Direct Democracy Originated from Ancient Greeks Everyone votes for public policy No representatives

12 Who Can Participate (Con’t)
Indirect Democracy Most Common Form of Democracy It is a representative government People vote for other people to do the law making and executing Ex. Gov. Matt Blunt, Sen. Obama, Sen. McCain If the representative does not do the will of the people, they are not voted back in to Government

13 Who Can Participate (Con’t)
Dictatorship The Government is not controlled by the people Two Forms Autocracy Single Person Oligarchy Small Group All Dictators are authoritarian Hold Absolute power

14 Who Can Participate (Con’t)
Most modern dictators are totalitarian Control nearly every aspect of human affairs Hitler (Germany) Stalin (USSR) People’s Republic of China Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)

15 Who Can Participate (Con’t)
Modern dictators present/ hide beneath the image of “Government for the people” Name Rigged Elections Controlled Legislative Branch Propaganda Ex. Zimbabwe, North Korea

16 Geographic Distribution of Power
Unitary Government Power is held to the Central Government Federal Government Power divided between central government and several local government The two groups must work together Confederate Government An alliance of independent states Very weak or no central government Example is the EU Though working towards a Federal style Government


18 Relationship between Legislative and Executive Branches
Presidential Government Executive and Legislative are independent of one another and coequal They have the power to block each others actions AKA Separation of Powers Parliamentary Government Executive branches is voted in by the Legislative Prime Minister and his cabinet are voted in by the legislative branch Thus they are not independent nor co-equal of one another


20 Section 3: Basic Concepts of Democracy
Foundations Worth of the individual Fight of individual versus society Equality of all persons Equality of opportunity Equality before the law Majority Rule, Minority Rights The majority will make more satisfactory decisions for the “Common Good” than will a minority of people However, Majority must listen and involve the minority

21 Foundations (Con’t) Necessity of Compromise Individual Freedom
Process of blending and adjusting competing views and interest Due to our diversity in the U.S., compromise is mandatory and difficult Individual Freedom “The rights of every man are diminished when the rights of one man are threatened” JFK

22 Democracy and the Freed Enterprise System
Free Enterprise System Four fundamental factors: Private ownership, individual initiative, profit and competition Law of Supply and Demand Market determines the price and supply Mixed Economy Free market and some governmental regulation U.S. system is a mixed economy

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