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Constitutional Democracy: Promoting Liberty and Self-GovernmentChapter 2
Before the Constitution: Colonial and Revolutionary ExperiencesColonial experiences with democratic institutions; English Parliament and colonial charters The “rights of Englishmen”—including trial by jury Repeal of the Stamp Act: a tax on colonial newspapers and document Enactment of the Townsend Act: tax on tea First Continental Congress © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Before the Constitution: Colonial and Revolutionary ExperiencesDeclaration of Independence A call to revolution—liberty, equality, individual rights, self-government, lawful powers Philosophy of John Locke Inalienable (natural) rights: life, liberty, and property Social contract: government has responsibility to preserve rights Thomas Jefferson “All men are created equal” Just powers derive from the consent of the governed © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Before the Constitution: Colonial and Revolutionary ExperiencesArticles of Confederation Adopted during the Revolutionary War Created weak national government States retained “sovereignty, freedom and independence” Prohibited Congress from interfering in states’ commerce policies Prohibited Congress from taxation © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Before the Constitution: Colonial and Revolutionary ExperiencesA nation dissolving Raised fears about the weakness of the national government Weakened Congress—nation dissolving Farmers, led by Daniel Shays, marched to prevent foreclosures on their land Congress unable to raise army to quell rebellion Motivated Congress to authorize a convention in Philadelphia to revise Articles of Confederation © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Negotiating toward a ConstitutionThe Great Compromise: a two-chamber Congress Virginia (large-state) Plan Representation based on population number Greater power to larger states New Jersey (small-state) Plan Each state would have one vote Equal power to large and small states Great Compromise: two-chamber Congress House of Representatives: proportional representation Senate: equal representation © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Negotiating toward a ConstitutionThe Three-Fifths Compromise: issues of slavery and trade Congress agreed not to tax exports, only imports Congress agreed not to outlaw slavery Three-Fifths Compromise: three-fifths of enslaved population counted for apportionment of taxes and political representation © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
© 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.Insert Figure 2-1 African Americans as a Percentage of State Population, 1790 © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Negotiating toward a ConstitutionA strategy for ratification Constitution submitted directly to the states Federalists: proponents of the Constitution Anti-Federalists: against a strong national government © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Negotiating toward a ConstitutionThe ratification debate Anti-Federalists raised arguments that still echo in American politics The national government would be too powerful State self-government and personal liberty at risk The Federalist Papers: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Negotiating toward a ConstitutionThe framers’ goals Government strong enough to meet the country’s needs Government not threatening existence of the separate states Government not threatening liberty Government based on popular consent © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Insert Table 2-1 Major Goals of the Framers of the Constitution© 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Protecting Liberty: Limited GovernmentGrants and denials of power Grants: Limit government by stating specific powers in the Constitution Total of seventeen powers Denials: Limit government by stating specific prohibitions in the Constitution Constitution difficult to amend © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Protecting Liberty: Limited GovernmentUsing power to offset power Montesquieu’s concept of separation of powers Madison’s Federalist No. 10 and the problem of overbearing majorities The framers’ special contribution: separate but overlapping powers © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Insert Table 2-2 Constitutional Provisions for Limited Government© 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Protecting Liberty: Limited GovernmentSeparated institutions sharing power: checks and balances Separation of powers: divide powers of government Shared institutions—checks and balances Shared legislative powers: Congress checked by the president, Supreme Court Shared executive powers: president checked by Congress, Supreme Court Shared judicial powers: courts checked by the president, Congress © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Insert Figure 2-2 The System of Checks and Balances© 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Protecting Liberty: Limited GovernmentBill of Rights First ten amendments to Constitution Protects rights of citizens, such as: Freedom of speech Trial by jury of peers, and legal counsel Freedom of religion Limits power of government © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Protecting Liberty: Limited GovernmentJudicial review Courts determine if governmental institution is acting within its constitutional powers Established by Chief Justice John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison (1803) © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Providing for Self-GovernmentDemocracy versus republic Framers feared the overbearing power of the majority in a democracy Framers preferred concept of a republic, where people rule through elected representatives Majority rule in a republic is limited to protect minority rights © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Providing for Self-GovernmentLimited popular rule People participate indirectly in process of government through election of officials Indirect election of president through Electoral College Indirect (initially) election of senators Federal judiciary appointed, not elected © 2014, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Insert Table 2-3 Original Methods of Choosing National Leaders© 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Providing for Self-GovernmentAltering the Constitution: more power to the people Jeffersonian democracy Government belonged to all, not just elite Jacksonian democracy States give electoral votes to winner of the popular vote The Progressives Direct election of senators; referendums and initiatives Delegates carry out wishes of the voters © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
© 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.Insert Table 2-4 Measures Taken to Make Government More Responsive to Popular Majorities © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Constitutional Democracy TodayConstitutional: power gained through elections to be exercised in accordance with law and with due respect for individual rights Democratic: provides for majority influence via elections Republic: mix of deliberative institutions, each of which moderates the power of the others © 2015, McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.
Principles of the U. S. Constitution
Constitutional Democracy: Promoting Liberty and Self-Government Chapter 2.
Constitutional Democracy: Promoting Liberty and Self-Government
ORIGINS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
The Constitution Colonial Period Articles of Confederation Philadelphia Convention Compromises Federalist/Anti-Federalist Debate.
M AJOR G OALS OF T HE F RAMERS OF THE C ONSTITUTION Table 2.1 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1.
Warm-up for 1/22 and 1/23 Imagine that you have just declared independence from Great Britain, if you were in charge of helping to create our new government,
Sovereignty Freedom to self govern. Independent Free.
Constitutional Democracy: Promoting Liberty and Self Government Chapter 2.
CHAPTER 2 THE CONSTITUTION. I. ORIGINS OF THE CONSTITUTION: THE PROBLEM OF LIBERTY A. English heritage concept of limited government Magna Carta (1215)
Learning Targets: SWBAT review all material covered in SSCG2 and SSCG3
Constitutional Underpinnings Advanced Placement United States Government & Politics.
Instructional Focus Document Notes Grade 8/Social Studies UNIT: 05 TITLE: More Perfect Union Part 1: Principles of the Constitution.
The making of the Constitution
The Constitution. Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson Inspired by John Locke D of I opens with Jefferson invoking Locke philosophy…
WRITING THE CONSTITUTION COACH MCCAGE. 1 The Philadelphia Convention of 1787 would be considered part of which era? A Colonial Era B Revolutionary Era.
Unit 3 Vocabulary New Nation.
Chapter 8 Confederation to Constitution Sorry guys… you pretty much have to have ALL this information so get ready! WRITE EVERYTHING THAT IS IN ORANGE!!!!!
We The People THE CONSTITUTION Roots of the Constitution n More freedom in colonies n Administration of colonies was expensive, especially protection.
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