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Reliability & Desirability of Data

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1 Reliability & Desirability of Data
ICT IGCSE Reliability & Desirability of Data

2 Objectives You should understand and be able to discuss issues relating to information found on the Internet, including: unreliability, undesirability and the security of data transfer

3 The Internet and World Wide Web are a fantastic resource for finding and sharing information. The Web contains literally billions of web pages containing information about every topic imaginable. However we need to take care when using the Internet to look for information, or to send information.

4 Reliability of Information
The Internet and Web are not regulated - there is no organization that controls who can create web pages or what those pages can contain. Anyone can create web pages and say anything they want to.

5 In many ways this is a good thing
In many ways this is a good thing. It means that corrupt organizations or governments, who have always been able to hide details of their activities, are no longer able to do so. When bad things happen, people write about it on the Web and the world gets to know, and hopefully do something about it.

6 But… it’s also a bad thing. It means that people or organizations can easily spread lies and hatred. There are thousands of websites containing bigoted viewpoints, and thousands more that are full of information that is biased, inaccurate, or just plain wrong.

7 How do you know if it’s OK?
Check several sources of information (go to lots of different websites). If they all say them same thing, it is likely to be true Stick to websites that belong to trusted organisations. If the website address ends in (the UK government site) it is more likely to be reliable than one like Look at the spelling and grammar used. Reliable websites are usually checked for errors. Too many spelling errors mean it’s probably not to be trusted.

8 Undesirable Information
In addition to the Web being full of websites with inaccurate information, there are also a huge number of websites that contain highly offensive, or illegal material.

9 How to avoid it? Avoiding this type of material can be tricky. Many organizations such as schools, some governments (e.g. for religious reasons), and also many parents, make use of web page filtering software. This software attempts to prevent offensive and illegal material being accessed.

10 If filtering software is not installed:
You can still take steps to help you avoid these types of sites: Use the 'safe search' feature on search engines such as Google. Don’t click the links that are shown in junk (spam) Think carefully about the keywords that you use to search with.

11 Be careful when you search!
If you are researching the causes of over-heating in young chickens, searching for ‘hot chicks’ might not find the information that you are looking for!

12 Security of Data Transfer
you should always consider encrypting any sensitive or personal data that is sent or accessed over a public network such as the Internet.

13 Many websites, especially online shopping or online banking sites, require you to enter personal information, such as credit card numbers, social security IDs, etc. To make sure your data is safe, these websites use encryption - they are called secure websites.

14 You should always make sure that a website is secure before giving personal information...
The website URL (address) should begin with (normal, unsecure sites have addresses that start with Your web browser should show a closed padlock icon

15 Phishing

16 'Phishing' is the nickname given to the sending of fraudulent s that attempt to trick people into revealing details about their bank accounts, or other online accounts (e.g. Amazon, eBay, etc.) The 'phishers' then use these bank details to login to the victim's bank account and take their money.

17 Pharming 'Pharming' is similar to phishing, but instead of deceiving you (as phishing does), a pharming attack deceives your computer. In a pharming attack, when you type in a completely genuine URL (e.g. for your online banking website), your computer is tricked into displaying a fake website (often a very accurate copy).

18 Then, when you try to login to the fake website, your username / password are recorded and used to take money from your real bank account. It is very difficult to spot pharming attacks, because to the user everything seems to be normal.

19 How pharming works

20 What’s the difference? The name 'pharming' is a mix of the terms 'phishing' and 'farming'. Phishing requires 'bait', pharming doesn't!

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