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15 Economic Policy. Conditions Required for a Market Economy Government has a role to play in a market economy: –Ensure law and order –Secure property.

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Presentation on theme: "15 Economic Policy. Conditions Required for a Market Economy Government has a role to play in a market economy: –Ensure law and order –Secure property."— Presentation transcript:

1 15 Economic Policy

2 Conditions Required for a Market Economy Government has a role to play in a market economy: –Ensure law and order –Secure property rights –Enforce contracts There is a need for public policies – laws, rules, statutes, or edicts that express the government’s goals for rewards and punishments to promote their attainment

3 Public Goods and Externalities Public goods are services that in most cases are not provided by the free market Examples: –Infrastructure –Education –Military Externalities are secondary impacts resulting from market exchanges

4 Creating a Labor Force and Promoting Competition Governments have an interest in maximizing the productivity of their labor force Monopolies threaten the proper function of free markets

5 Market Failures and Collective Responses Some market problems: –Unequal information –Bubbles – Speculative buying drives the price of major commodities (like real estate) to levels far exceeding their intrinsic value –Externalities – The difference between the private and social cost of economic behavior We want government to correct for these problems with carrots and sticks

6 Clicker Question Which of the following is NOT considered to be a role for government in ensuring the proper function of markets? A.Creating monopolies B.Creating law and order C.Securing property rights D.Enforcing contracts

7 Goals of Economic Policy Market stability –Law and order –Ensuring competition –Consistent regulatory structure Promoting prosperity as measured by –Economic growth –Income and employment –Low Inflation

8 Changes in Real Gross Domestic Product, 1960–2010

9 Full Employment During the Great Depression, the federal government assumed the responsibility for job creation Keynesian economics emerged as the dominant economic theory to restore economic growth and employment

10 Tools for Promoting Economic Growth The Federal Reserve Bank can promote economic growth by lowering interest rates Regulatory agencies like the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) promote consumer confidence Government investment in science and technology can lead to long-term innovation

11 Tools For Economic Growth Subsidies – A government grant of cash or other valuable commodities, such as land, to an individual or organization; used to promote activities desired by the government to reward political support, or to buy off political opposition Loans/grants Tax Breaks

12 Clicker Question The Federal Reserve Bank can regulate economic growth by: A.providing tax breaks to business owners. B.increasing or decreasing interest rates. C.providing loans to business owners. D.regulating insider trading.

13 Protecting Employers and Consumers Government has a role to play in managing relations between capital and labor Many government agencies exist to protect consumers from harm

14 Tools of Economic Policy Monetary policy regulates the economy through increasing or limiting the availability of credit The Federal Reserve Bank is a powerful tool for monetary policy –Interest rates –Reserve requirements –Open market operations –Federal funds rate

15 Fiscal Policies Fiscal policy refers to the government’s taxing and spending decisions The Treasury Department plays an important role Taxation –Tariffs, income tax, corporate tax, Social Security taxes, excise tax –Progressive vs. regressive taxation

16 Federal Revenues

17 US Budget Deficits and Surpluses, 1962–2009

18 Clicker Question Government decisions in the area of taxing and spending are thought of as: A. Keynesian economics. B. regulatory policy. C. fiscal policy. D. monetary policy.

19 The Uncontrollables

20 Budget Outlays

21 The Economy and the Environment There is a tension between promoting economic growth and protecting the environment Climate change represents a controversial illustration

22 American Worries About Environmental Problems

23 Clicker Question According to Table 15.2, which of the following environmental problems do Americans worry about least? Why? A.Plant and animal extinction B.Air pollution C.Toxic waste D.Global warming

24 The Politics of Economic Policymaking The two major political parties differ with respect to economic policy –Republicans tend to favor policies that promote economic growth –Democrats tend to favor policies that promote the environment and social equality Since 2008, these arguments have become more salient and they will surely be the key dividing lines in 2012




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