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Standard III-2 Kingdom Plantae

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Biology AHSGE Standard X- Kingdom Plantae. Eligible Content CONTENT STANDARD 10. Distinguish between monocots and dicots, angiosperms and gymnosperms,

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1 Standard III-2 Kingdom Plantae
Science AHSGE Standard III-2 Kingdom Plantae

2 Kingdom Plantae Multicellular Eukaryotic
Autotrophic/producers- Make their own food Chlorophyll- green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plant cells Photosynthesis- Light energy to chemical energy Need Carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose and oxygen Glucose: sugar, starch, and carbohydrates

3 Vascular vs. Nonvascular
Nonvascular (Bryophyta)- Plants containing no vascular tissues; no roots Require water for reproduction and nutrient transport Live in moist, shady environments Three types: Mosses Liverworts Hornworts Vascular- Plants containing vascular tissues (conducting/transporting tissues); have roots Two tissues together in a vascular bundle: Xylem- transports water from roots throughout the plant Phloem- transports food from leaves throughout the plant; mostly to roots for storage



6 Nonvascular Plants- Bryophyta
Hornwort Liverwort

7 Two Types of Vascular Plants
Spore-bearing Reproduce by spores Horsetails Clubmosses Whisk ferns Pterophyta- ferns Alternation of Generations Gametophyte (n) Sporophyte (2n) Frond- leaf of a fern Spores are found on the back Seed-bearing


9 Vascular Plants Fern Spores on back of frond

10 Two-types of Seed-bearing Plants
Gymnosperm Naked seeds (not protected) Winged seeds Wind pollinated Conifers- produce cones Female cones are larger; contain ovules Male cones are smaller; contain pollen Needle-like leaves Evergreen- stay green all year; leaves are continually replaced Examples: Pine, Fir, Cedar, Redwood, Spruce Angiosperm Protected seeds in fruit Produce flowers Colorful to attract pollinators Broad-shaped leaves Deciduous- Lose all leaves once a year; remain dormant in the winter Examples: Maple, Oak, Apple, Pear, Tomato, Pecan, Rose

11 Gymnosperms Female cones Male cones

12 Vascular Plants- Gymnosperms
Pine Trees Spruce Trees

13 Two Types of Angiosperms
Monocots Herbaceous- Low growing; soft green stem One cotyledon (seed leaf)- Food for embryo inside a seed Leaves with parallel veination Scattered/random vascular bundles Fibrous/Adventitious root system Dicots Woody- Heightened; tough, wooden stem Two cotyledons Leaves with net-like veination Vascular bundles in rings Tap-root/Primary and adventitious root system

14 Vascular Plants- Angiosperms
Crab Apple Tree Sweet Gum Oak tree

15 Veination Monocot Dicot

16 Vascular Bundles

17 Root Systems

18 Roots Root cap- Thick wall of dead cells at the tip of a root; protects it as it grows Root hairs- Increase surface area for more water absorption

19 Plant Growth Meristem- Areas of cells which divide allowing for primary growth of a plant

20 Plant Growth Cambium- Area of cells between the xylem and phloem which divide allowing for secondary growth of a plant

21 Outer Plant Parts Epidermis- Skin covering of a plant
Cuticle- Waxy substance covering a leaf Stomata- Openings on the underside of a leaf where gases are exchanged and transpiration takes place Guard cells- Open and close stomata

22 Leaf Parts

23 Flower Parts Pistil- Female reproductive organ
Stigma- Sticky top for attachment of pollen Style- Elongated portion leading from the stigma to the ovary Pollen tube- tube leading from the stigma down the style to the ovary Ovary- Contains ovules (eggs) Stamen- Male reproductive organ Anther- Pollen-producing structure at tip of filament Filament- stalk-like structure which holds the anther up

24 Flower Parts (Monoecious)

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