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Standard V-1, Part 2- Cell Processes

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Presentation on theme: "Standard V-1, Part 2- Cell Processes"— Presentation transcript:

1 Standard V-1, Part 2- Cell Processes
Science AHSGE Standard V-1, Part 2- Cell Processes

2 Homeostasis The ability of an organism or cell to maintain internal balance and stability by adjusting its physiological processes. If normal state is not restored, death might occur. Processes involved in homeostasis: Nutrition- Use of nutrients Digestion- Break down of materials into usable substances Absorption- Ability of an organism/cell to take in materials from the outside environment Transport- Movement of substances within an organism/cell Biosynthesis- Making new compounds for growth, repair, or reproduction

3 Homeostasis Homeostasis processes cont’d:
Secretion- Release of substances within an organism/cell Respiration- Release of energy from the breakdown of chemical compounds in the mitochondria Photosynthesis- Autotrophic production of glucose from CO2 and H2O Excretion- Rid of waste products to the outside of the organism/cell Response- Reaction due to a stimulus Reproduction (Fission)- Production of new cells by one cell dividing (mitosis and meiosis)

4 Passive Transport Passive Transport- The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane. Diffusion- The net movement of particles from an area where there are many particles of the substance to an area where there are fewer particles of the substance. High concentration to lower concentration Requires no energy Will continue until all concentrations are the same Dynamic equilibrium- Particles will continue to move without an overall change in concentration.

5 Diffusion

6 Diffusion 3 factors affect rate of diffusion:
Concentration (amount of a substance) Temperature (average kinetic energy of the particles) Pressure (Force of particles against the area of membrane) In each case, the higher, the faster More collisions occur causing diffusion to occur faster

7 Facilitated Diffusion
Facilitated diffusion- Uses transport proteins to move other ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane Passive transport because it does not require energy Water can diffuse across the membrane, but most other substances can not Can use water-filled transport (channel) proteins or Carrier proteins (change shape as material passes through)

8 Osmosis Osmosis- Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane In a solution, a solute is dissolved into a solvent. Water is the solvent in a cell and its environment

9 Osmosis Hypotonic Solution- Solution has a lower concentration of solute and higher concentration of solvent. Cell will be cell will be hypertonic Net movement of water will be into the cell, causing the cell to swell In pure solvents, cells will burst Ex: Distilled water, pure vinegar Hypertonic solution- Solution has a higher concentration of solute and a lower concentration of solvent. Cell will be hypotonic Net movement of water will be out of the cell, causing the cell to shrink

10 Osmosis Isotonic Solution- The solution has the same concentrations of solutes and solvents as the cell. Cell is also isotonic Water will enter and leave the cell at equal rates, allowing for the cell to remain unchanged.

11 Osmosis Practice

12 Active Transport Active transport- Movement of substances across the membrane from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration; against the concentration gradient. Requires energy Uses carrier proteins called pumps Maintains the proper balance of substances it needs to maintain homeostasis

13 Active Transport Sodium-potassium ATPase Pump
Found in cell membrane of animal cells Uses energy to transport 3 sodium ions out, while moving two potassium ions in (decreases sodium concentration inside the cell) Coupled transport- Sugar molecules attach to sodium ions to be transported into the cell without energy through the coupled channel

14 Active Transport Endocytosis- Cell surrounds a substance in the outside environment, enclosing it in a portion of the membrane. Pinches off into a vacuole Pinocytosis- Cell drinking Phagocytosis- Cell eating Exocytosis- Vesicles surround waste inside the cell, attach to the cell membrane, and expel materials to the outside environment.

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