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The release of energy from food when oxygen is available. The process is controlled by enzymes.

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Presentation on theme: "The release of energy from food when oxygen is available. The process is controlled by enzymes."— Presentation transcript:

1 The release of energy from food when oxygen is available. The process is controlled by enzymes

2  Make a table to show the advantages and disadvantages of using enzymes

3 AdvantagesDiadvantages Work at low temperatures so cheap to run process Denatured at high temperatures Work at relatively low pressures Sensitive to pH changes Efficient catalysts Microbes can be used to make enzymes If produced by microbes need to provide these with food, oxygen and remove waste Note if the enzymes are derived from microbes they may well have optimum temperatures different from mammals- higher than 37

4  Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water+ Energy  This process occurs in the Mitochondria

5  To build larger molecules from small ones  To enable muscle contraction in animals  To maintain a constant body temperature in mammals and birds  To build sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids and then proteins

6  Where does aerobic respiration take place?  What is needed for muscles to contract?  What are amino acids built up into?

7  This means keeping conditions inside the body constant  The conditions include  Temperature  Blood glucose levels  Water  Urea  Carbon dioxide


9  Carbon Dioxide- every cell in your body respires producing carbon dioxide, so it is vital that carbon dioxide it is removed.  If it remained dissolved in the cells it affects pH. It is acidic in solution and this would affect the enzymes in the cells

10  Urea is made in the liver from the breakdown of amino acids not needed if you have eaten more protein than you need or when body tissues are worn out. Urea is poisonous so must be removed  The urea passes into the blood and filtered out of the blood by the kidneys  The urea is removed with water as urine along with excess water and salts  Urine is produced all the time by the kidneys and stored in the bladder

11  Water and ions enter your body when you eat or drink  Water is lost through breathing, sweating and in urine  If the water or ion content is wrong too much water may move in and out of your sells by osmosis

12  Carbon dioxide is the waste product of respiration  Some amino acids are not used they are converted to urea by the liver and excreted as urine by the kidneys  Water and ion content of cells must be controlled or too much or too little water may move in or out of cells

13  List the 2 main waste products of the body  State how each of them is formed and how they are removed from the body

14  The brain has a thermoregulatory centre to detect body temperature  Also the skin detects changes in temperature

15  Blood vessels near the surface of the skin DILATE (get wider) so more blood flows through the capillaries near the skins surface Heat is lost by RADIATION  Sweat glands produce more sweat. This evaporates on the skins surface The energy for evaporation comes from the skins surface so we cool down


17  Blood vessels near the surface of the skin constrict so less blood flowsthrough the skin capillaries  Less heat is radiated  We shiver. Muscles contract quickly this needs respiration  Some of the energy produced from respiration is released as heat

18  Which 2 parts of the body detect changes in body temperature?  Where is sweat produced?  Why does shivering make you feel warmer?


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