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Pollution Chapter 13. Water Pollution Types and Sources of Water Pollution  #1 problem - Eroded soils  Organic wastes, disease-causing agents  Chemicals,

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Presentation on theme: "Pollution Chapter 13. Water Pollution Types and Sources of Water Pollution  #1 problem - Eroded soils  Organic wastes, disease-causing agents  Chemicals,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pollution Chapter 13

2 Water Pollution

3 Types and Sources of Water Pollution  #1 problem - Eroded soils  Organic wastes, disease-causing agents  Chemicals, nutrients  Radioactive stuff, heat

4 Point and Nonpoint Sources NONPOINT SOURCES Urban streets Suburban development Wastewater treatment plant Rural homes Cropland Factory Animal feedlot POINT SOURCES

5 Major Problem: Drinking Water  Safe Drinking Water Act  EPA: Maximum contaminant levels (municipal, but not rural and private)  1/2 of world’s people drink polluted water

6 Pollution of Surface Water: Streams  D.O., B.O.D., fecal coliform bacteria count

7 Pollution of Surface Water: Lakes  Cultural eutrophication  Slow turnover  Accumulation of nutrients, excessive plant growth, algae blooms

8 Case Study: The Great Lakes

9 Mississippi River Basin Missouri River Ohio River Mississippi River LOUISIANA Mississippi River Depleted Oxygen Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone

10 Suffocated fish Low dissolved oxygen Decreased fish population Altered food web Thermal Pollution

11 Groundwater Pollution: Sources  Low flow rates  Few bacteria  Cold temperatures Coal strip mine runoff Pumping well Waste lagoon Accidental spills Groundwater flow Confined aquifer Discharge Leakage from faulty casing Hazardous waste injection well Pesticides Gasoline station Buried gasoline and solvent tank Sewer Cesspool septic tank De-icing road salt Unconfined freshwater aquifer Confined freshwater aquifer Water pumping well Landfill

12 Groundwater Pollution Prevention  Monitoring aquifers - expensive  Leak detection systems  Strictly regulating hazardous waste disposal  Protecting recharge areas - aquifer classifications

13 Ocean Pollution: dumping and oil

14 Oil Spills  Sources: offshore wells, tankers, pipelines and storage tanks  Effects: death of organisms, loss of animal insulation and buoyancy, smothering  Significant economic impacts  Short-term cleanup problems - beaches, wildlife  Long-term cleanup problem - persistence (decades)

15 Case Study: Chesapeake Bay  Largest US estuary  Relatively shallow  Slow “flushing” action to Atlantic  Major problems with dissolved O 2

16 Solutions: Preventing and Reducing Surface Water Pollution Nonpoint Sources Point Sources  Reduce runoff  Buffer zone vegetation  Reduce soil erosion  Water Pollution Control Act (1972)  Clean Water Act (1977) - set effluent standards - secondary treatment

17 Technological Approach: Septic Systems  Require suitable soils and maintenance

18 Technological Approach: Sewage Treatment  Mechanical and biological treatment

19 Technological Approach: Advanced Sewage Treatment  Removes specific pollutants

20 Technological Approach: Using Wetlands to Treat Sewage

21 Acid Deposition

22 Automobiles as a Source NO from cars

23 Widespread Secondary Air Pollution: Acid Deposition  Wet deposition  Dry deposition

24 Acid Deposition in the U.S.

25 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil

26 Direct damage to forest tree foliage Erodes protective waxes from leaves, needles Leaches nutrients from leaves

27 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Lowers soil pH Affects mineral solubility Leach out positively charged ions (K, Mg, Ca) from clay particles Easily flushed away

28 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Increases concentration of potentially toxic minerals E.g., aluminum Damages xylem - reduces ability to take in water, nutrients - die from lack of moisture, nutrients

29 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Has resulted in loss of large stands of trees in many different regions around world Canada, New England, Smoky Mountains

30 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil

31 Nearly 70% of forests in Czech Republic have been destroyed Trees in nearly half of Germany’s Black Forest have been impacted

32 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Switzerland has lost 10% of its forests Increased chance of avalanches

33 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Large portions of forests in Norway have been lost, especially in southern regions

34 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Correlation between dying forests and thriving ground layer of mosses

35 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Mosses are acid- loving Thick layer holds do much moisture that surface soils become saturated Feeder roots, tree die from lack of oxygen (drown)

36 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Mosses also may kill mycorrhizal fungi Reduce uptake of nutrients

37 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Dense layer of mosses may further acidify water passing through them into soil Dissolve more toxic trace metals, leach more soil nutrients

38 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Even if trees somehow manage to survive all these problems, their growth is reduced substantially

39 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil

40 Varying effects on crop productivity, but wide distribution of problem areas

41 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Some evidence for direct damage Potatoes in Canada - damage to foliage, potential uptake of toxins

42 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Coffee plants have shown damage to foliage in some areas

43 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Although much evidence points toward harmful effects from acid rain, some studies show the opposite

44 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Helpful to crops where soil nutrients may be very low - nitrogen- limited Acidification may release nutrients, allow for greater uptake

45 Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil Some evidence where crops show now effect of acid deposition, either negative or positive Balance each other out

46 Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems  Fish, Invertebrates decline (<5.0)  Undesirable species

47 Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems Adirondacks - 25% of lakes too acidic for fish, 20% threatened EPA: 15,000 U.S. lakes acidified or threatened

48 Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems 1/3 of Florida lakes acidic enough to cause harm to aquatic life

49 Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems 20,000 lakes in Sweden are too acidic for fish

50 Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems Salmon runs in most Norway rivers have been eliminated No egg production

51 Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems 20 famous salmon- fishing rivers in Nova Scotia have lost or are near to losing the fish

52 Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems Half of Quebec’s 48,000 lakes were acidified by year 2000, and more are becoming that way

53 Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems During most seasons, acids are not direct problem, but they mobilize toxic metals: aluminum, lead, mercury Aluminum irritates gills of fish, causes mucus buildup, death from asphyxiation

54 Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems Major problem season: snowmelt First 30% of meltwater contains virtually all the acid pH 3.0-3.5 Toxic to eggs, fish fry, adult fish

55 Global Carbon Cycle Human effects: fossil fuel combustion, cutting and burning of trees

56 Global Carbon Cycle

57 Increasing atmospheric CO 2 has brought about a rise in global temperature

58 Greenhouse Effect CO 2 acts like glass in a global greenhouse Slows escape of infrared radiation from earth’s surface

59 Greenhouse Effect Many other gases are far more effective at trapping heat Methane, CFCs, nitrous oxide (N 2 O) 20-270 X as effective CO 2 responsible for 2/3 of increase in greenhouse effect

60 Greenhouse Effect CO 2 concentrations increased 21.5% from 1870-1990 Increasing consumption of fossil fuels, deforestation Doubling of CO 2 concentrations may occur with continued fossil fuel use over 50-100 years

61 Greenhouse Effect CO 2 doubling may increase average global temperature by 2-5°C Global temps have increased 0.8°C over last century, 0.6° of that in last 30 years

62 Major Climate Changes Worldwide change in patterns of precipitation, storms, winds, ocean currents Each 1°C increase pushes climatic zones 90 mi N in N. hemisphere

63 Major Climate Changes Variable effects worldwide, but greatest changes between 40 and 70°N, in N. Amer. and Eurasia Caused by both warmer temps and increased CO 2 (greater forest productivity)

64 Major Climate Changes Polar ice sheets and glaciers have been melting, and changes would escalate

65 Major Climate Changes Sea levels would rise due to melting ice, expansion of warming water 4°C increase would cause 0.5-1.5 m rise worldwide Flood coastal wetlands, low-lying cities, agricultural lands

66 Major Climate Changes Frequency, intensity of weather extremes would increase Heat waves, drought, hurricanes

67 Major Climate Changes Speed up decay of organic matter Further increase CO 2 concentrations in atmosphere

68 Major Climate Changes Warmer climates spreading northward would bring insect-borne diseases, more pests into areas currently protected by cold temperatures

69 Major Climate Changes Growth rates of many tree species would be lowered Ranges would have to shift northward At rate up to 10 X greater than they’ve ever done in the past Birch, sugar maple

70 Major Climate Changes Stress from pests, disease microorganisms would increase Adapt faster than tress to changing environments

71 Major Climate Changes More frequent fires Forest and grassland Increased disturbance: decreased diversity?

72 Major Climate Changes But are rising CO 2 concentrations really a concern? 3-4 X higher 250 million years ago Regular cycling over past 400,000 years

73 Major Climate Changes Rising global temperatures? 30 years ago there were signs that we were entering glacial cooling


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