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Studying Life.

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Presentation on theme: "Studying Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 Studying Life

2 Characteristics of Living Things
Does a Fire give off energy? Does a Fire fly (lightning bug) give off energy? Are they both Alive? What makes something alive?

3 What is Biology? The study of living things
The study of interactions between living things “Bio” means “life/living” “-ology” means “study of…”

4 Characteristic’s continued…
Living things share several characteristics. These characteristics include the following: (There are 8 Characteristics!)

5 1. Living things obtain and use materials and energy (FOOD)
As organisms grow, they need energy and materials to survive. What is an example of materials? Metabolism —The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes.

6 How is energy obtained? Energy comes from Glucose Autotroph:
Produce their own “food” Heterotroph: Must consume Decomposer: Breaks down organic material for food

7 2. Living Things REPRODUCE
All organisms produce new organisms. (offspring which resemble parents) Asexually —single parent. Dividing in half to produce another organism. Sexually —two cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell of the new organism.

8 3. Living things change over time (EVOLVE) and adapt
Key words—as a group, living things evolve, or change over time. Example: Plants that can survive periods without water. These plants had to “change over time” to survive without water at certain dry periods.

9 Adapt to long range changes in environment
These changes allowed organisms to better survive in environment

10 4. Living things DEVELOP and grow.
Life Cycles Life cycle of a butterfly—egg—caterpillar—pupa (chrysalis)—adult butterfly Life cycle of a fly—egg—maggot—adult fly All living organisms grow at least part of their lives. Growth = ↑ in size Develop = mature

11 5. Living things are made up of CELLS
A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier (membrane) that separates the cell from its surroundings. Cells are the basic structure of living things A single cell organism is called “unicellular” (ie = bacteria) Multicellular= comprised of many cells

12 6. Living things maintain a stable internal environment (HOMEOSTASIS)
Changes that happen in organisms are complex. Example: a plant may take on water through roots at one point but give water off at another through leaves (transpire). The internal consistency is called Homeostasis. (process in which organisms keep their internal conditions stable)

13 Examples of Homeostasis:
1. Plants transpire: give off water 2. Humans perspire/sweat to cool off 3. The hormone insulin is used by the body to keep blood sugar level 4. Dogs pant to cool off

14 7. Living things respond to their ENVIRONMENT
Organisms live in constantly changing environments. Examples: Temperature, Light, Smells, Sounds

15 They react to a stimulus
An action causes a reaction This reaction is called a response This involves one individual

16 8. Living Things are based on a Universal GENETIC CODE
Offspring always resemble their parents. With sexual reproduction, offspring differ in some ways. However, dogs must produce dogs, cats must produce cats and flies produce flies. The genetic code of each is what is produced. “Inheritance” carried on DNA

17 FRED CHEG! F ood R eproduce E volve D evelop C ells H omeostasis
E nvironment G enetic code

18 Fire is NOT alive Bacteria IS alive Rocks are NOT alive Fungus IS alive Viruses are NOT alive

19 Viruses Viruses are NOT considered alive because they can not reproduce on their own. They must use cells from other organisms to reproduce

20 Branches of Biology The order in which Biology is branched, starting from smallest to most broad would be: Molecules (Smallest) Cells Groups of cells Organism (species) Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere (Most Broad/Largest)

21 Various Biological Sciences
Paleontology Zoology Botany Anatomy Cytology Microbiology

22 Levels of Organization
(Largest) Biosphere The part of Earth that contains all ecosystems Biosphere Community and its nonliving surroundings Ecosystem Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, air Populations that live together in a defined area Community Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass Group of organisms of one type that live in the same area Population Bison herd

23 Levels of Organization
Individual living thing Organism Bison Groups of Cells Tissues, organs, and organ systems Nervous tissue Brain Nervous system Smallest functional unit of life Cells Nerve cell Groups of atoms; smallest unit of most chemical compounds Molecules Water DNA (Smallest)

24 The End

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