2 Characteristics of Living Things Does a Fire give off energy?Does a Fire fly (lightning bug) give off energy?Are they both Alive?What makes something alive?
3 What is Biology? The study of living things The study of interactions between living things“Bio” means “life/living”“-ology” means “study of…”
4 Characteristic’s continued… Living things share several characteristics.These characteristics include the following:(There are 8 Characteristics!)
5 1. Living things obtain and use materials and energy (FOOD) As organisms grow, they need energy and materials to survive.What is an example of materials?Metabolism —The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes.
6 How is energy obtained? Energy comes from Glucose Autotroph: Produce their own “food”Heterotroph:Must consumeDecomposer:Breaks down organic material for food
7 2. Living Things REPRODUCE All organisms produce new organisms. (offspring which resemble parents)Asexually —single parent. Dividing in half to produce another organism.Sexually —two cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell of the new organism.
8 3. Living things change over time (EVOLVE) and adapt Key words—as a group, living things evolve, or change over time.Example: Plants that can survive periods without water. These plants had to “change over time” to survive without water at certain dry periods.
9 Adapt to long range changes in environment These changes allowed organisms to better survive in environment
10 4. Living things DEVELOP and grow. Life CyclesLife cycle of a butterfly—egg—caterpillar—pupa (chrysalis)—adult butterflyLife cycle of a fly—egg—maggot—adult flyAll living organisms grow at least part of their lives.Growth = ↑ in sizeDevelop = mature
11 5. Living things are made up of CELLS A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier (membrane) that separates the cell from its surroundings.Cells are the basic structure of living thingsA single cell organism is called “unicellular” (ie = bacteria)Multicellular= comprised of many cells
12 6. Living things maintain a stable internal environment (HOMEOSTASIS) Changes that happen in organisms are complex.Example: a plant may take on water through roots at one point but give water off at another through leaves (transpire).The internal consistency is called Homeostasis. (process in which organisms keep their internal conditions stable)
13 Examples of Homeostasis: 1. Plants transpire: give off water2. Humans perspire/sweat to cool off3. The hormone insulin is used by the body to keep blood sugar level4. Dogs pant to cool off
14 7. Living things respond to their ENVIRONMENT Organisms live in constantly changing environments.Examples:Temperature, Light, Smells, Sounds
15 They react to a stimulus An action causes a reactionThis reaction is called a responseThis involves one individual
16 8. Living Things are based on a Universal GENETIC CODE Offspring always resemble their parents.With sexual reproduction, offspring differ in some ways.However, dogs must produce dogs, cats must produce cats and flies produce flies. The genetic code of each is what is produced.“Inheritance” carried on DNA
17 FRED CHEG! F ood R eproduce E volve D evelop C ells H omeostasis E nvironmentG enetic code
18 Fire is NOT aliveBacteria IS aliveRocks are NOT aliveFungus IS aliveViruses are NOT alive
19 VirusesViruses are NOT considered alive because they can not reproduce on their own.They must use cells from other organisms to reproduce
20 Branches of BiologyThe order in which Biology is branched, starting from smallest to most broad would be:Molecules (Smallest)CellsGroups of cellsOrganism (species)PopulationCommunityEcosystemBiosphere (Most Broad/Largest)
21 Various Biological Sciences PaleontologyZoologyBotanyAnatomyCytologyMicrobiology
22 Levels of Organization (Largest)BiosphereThe part of Earth that contains all ecosystemsBiosphereCommunity and its nonliving surroundingsEcosystemHawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, airPopulations that live together in a defined areaCommunityHawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grassGroup of organisms of one type that live in the same areaPopulationBison herd
23 Levels of Organization Individual livingthingOrganismBisonGroups ofCellsTissues, organs, and organ systemsNervous tissueBrainNervous systemSmallest functionalunit of lifeCellsNerve cellGroups of atoms;smallest unit ofmost chemicalcompoundsMoleculesWaterDNA(Smallest)