2 Outline food additives Direct Food Additives Indirect Food Additives Types of additivesroles and functions of food additives in foodCoding of food additivesFood safty (food additives)Food preservation
3 food additivesFood additives are substances added to products to perform specific technological functions. These functions include preserving, i.e. increasing shelf-life or inhibiting the growth of pathogens, or adding colouring and flavouring to food forinterest and variety..
4 are chemical substances added to foods to improve flavour, texture, colour, appearance and consistency, or as preservatives during manufacturing or processing. Herbs, spices, hops, salt, yeast, water, air and protein hydrolysates are excluded from this definition.There are over 300 permitted additives that can be used in the UK. Flavourings are not included in this figure, as there are over 3,000 flavouring components in UK use, in many different combinations. International organisations provide advice on the safety of flavourings
5 corn syrup, dextrose Includes any substance intended for use in producing, manufacturing, processing,preparing, treating,packaging, transporting or holdingfood, and any source of radiationintended for such use.4 direct food additives = 93% of total– Sucrose, salt,corn syrup, dextrose
6 Food Additive• A substance which may, by its intended use, become a component of food, either directly or indirectly, or which may otherwise affect the characteristics of food. – Includes any substance intended for use in producing, manufacturing, processing, preparing, treating, packaging, transporting or holding food, and any source of radiation intended for such use.
7 Direct Food Additives Nutrient supplements Nutritive sweeteners Anti-caking agentsAntimicrobial agentsAntioxidantsColoursCuring and pickling agentsEmulsifiersEnzymesFirming agentsFlavour enhancersFlavouring agentsHumectantsLeavening agentsRelease agentsNon-nutritive sweetenersNutrient supplementsNutritive sweetenersOxidizing and reducing agentspH control agentsPropellants and gasesSequestrantsSolvents and vehiclesStabilizers and thickenersSurface-active agentsTexturizers
9 Direct food additives serve four major purposes in our foods To provide nutrition – to improve or maintain the nutritional quality of food. For example, the addition of iodine to salt has contributed to the virtual elimination of simple goiter. The addition of Vitamin D to milk and other dairy products has accomplished the same thing with respect to rickets. Niacin in bread, cornmeal and cereals has helped eliminate pellagra, a disease characterized by central nervous system and skin disorders
10 To maintain product quality and freshness – fresh foods do not stay that way for long periods of time; they rapidly deteriorate, turn rancid and spoil. Food additives delay significantly this deterioration and prevent spoilage caused by growth of microorganisms, bacteria and yeast and also by oxidation (oxygen in air coming into contact with the foods). For example, if you were to cut slices of fresh fruits such as apples, bananas or pears, they would rapidly turn brown as a result of this oxidation process
11 To aid in the processing and preparation of foods – additives impart and/or maintain certain desirable qualities associated with various foods. For example, we expect salad dressings to stay mixed once they have been shaken. Emulsifiers such as lecithin from soybeans maintain mixture and improve texture in dressings and other foods. They are used in ice cream where smoothness is desired Leaveners used to make breads, biscuits and rolls rise, include yeast, baking powder and baking soda .
12 To make foods appealing – the majority of food additives are most often used for this purpose. Unless foods look appetizing and appeal to our senses, they will most likely go uneaten and valuable nutrients will be lost. Food additives such as flavoring agents and enhancers, coloring agents and sweeteners are included by food processors because we demand foods that look and taste good.
13 Types of additives Additives may be: • natural – found naturally, such as extracts from beetroot juice (E162), used as a colouring agent;• manmade versions – synthetic identical copies of substances found naturally, such as benzoic acid (E210), used as a preservative;• artificial – produced synthetically and not found naturally, such as nisin (E234), used as a preservative in some dairy products and in semolina and tapioca puddings.
15 roles and functions of food additives in food . PreservativesPreservatives aim to: • prevent the growth of micro-organisms which could cause food spoilage and lead to food poisoning • extend the shelf-life of products, so that they can be distributed and sold to the consumer with a longer shelf-life. For example, bacon, ham, corned beef and other ‘cured’ meats are often treated with nitrite and nitrate (E249 to E252) during the curing process
16 Antioxidants Antioxidants aim to: • prevent food containing fat or oil from going rancid due to oxidation, i.e. developing an unpleasant odour or flavour;• prevent the browning of cut fruit, vegetables and fruit juices (and so increase shelf life and appearance).For example, vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, or E300, is one of the most widely used antioxidants
17 Colours Colours aim to: • restore colour lost during processing or storage, e.g. marrowfat peas;• ensure that each batch produced is identicalin appearance or does not appear ‘off’;• reinforces colour already in foods, e.g. enhancethe yellowness of a custard;• give colour to foods which otherwise would be colourless (e.g. soft drinks) and so make them more attractive.
18 ColoursCertain combinations of the following articifical food colours: sunset yellow (E110), quinoline yellow (E104), carmoisine (E122), allura red (E129), tartrazine (E102) and ponceau 4R (E124) have been linked to a negative effect on children’s behaviour.These colours are used in soft drinks,sweets and ice cream.The Food Standards Agency suggest if signs of hyperactivity or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are seen in a child, these additives should be avoided.
19 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder In 2003, approximately 4.4 million children aged years were reported to have a history of ADHD diagnosis; of these, 2.5 million (56%) were reported to be taking medication for the disorder Some studies have linked some food additives to hyperactivity in children. A recent British study found that children without a history of any hyperactive disorder showed varying degrees of hyperactivity after consuming fruit drinks with various levels of additives. Among those that were studied were: Sodium benzoate (E211), Tartrazine (E102), quinoline yellow (E104), Sunset yellow (E110), Carmosine (E122), Allura red (E129).
20 Flavour enhancersFlavour enhancers bring out the flavour in foods without imparting a flavour of their own, e.g. monosodium glutamate (E612) is added to processed foods. For example some soups, sauces and sausages. Flavourings, on the other hand, are added to a wide range of foods, usually in small amounts to give a particular taste. These do not have E numbers because they are controlled by different food laws. Ingredients lists will say if flavourings have been used, but individual flavourings might not be named
21 Sweeteners Sweeteners include: • intense sweeteners, e.g. saccharin, have a sweetness many times that of sugar and therefore are used in small amounts, e.g. in diet foods, soft drinks, sweetening tablets;• bulk sweeteners, e.g. sorbitol, have a similar sweetness to sugar and are used at similar levels.If concentrated cordial drinks that contain sweeteners are given to children between the ages of 6 months to 4 years, it is important to dilute them more than for adults. Infants under 6 months should not be given cordial drinks.
22 Acids, bases and buffers Acids, bases and buffers control the acidity or alkalinity of food, for safety and stability of flavourAnti-caking agentsAnti-caking agents ensure free movement or flow of particles, e.g. in dried milk or table salt
23 Anti – foaming agentsAnti-foaming agents prevent or disperse frothing, e.g. in the production of fruit juices
24 Glazing agentsGlazing agents provide a protective coating or sheen on the surface of foods, e.g. confectionary (for appearance and shelf-life).
25 Emulsifiers, stabilisers, gelling agents and thickeners Emulsifiers help mix ingredients together that would normally separate, e.g. Lecithins (E322).Stabilisers prevent ingredients from separating again, e.g. locust bean gum (E410).Emulsifers and stabilisers give food a consistent texture, e.g. they can be found in low-fat spreads.Gelling agents are used to change the consistency of a food, e.g. pectin (E440), which is used to make jam.Thickeners help give food body, e.g. can be found in most sauces.
26 Coding of food additives The food additive coding system was developed by the European Community (EC). The European food additive code numbers are prefixed by 'E' (e.g. E223). These E-numbers indicate the food additives that are approved for use in Europe
27 food colorspreservativesantioxidants, phosphates, and complexing agentsthickeners, gelling agents, phosphates, humectants, emulsifierssalts and related compoundsflavor enhancersnot used for food additives (used for feed additives)surface coating agents, gases, sweetenersmiscellaneous additivestarch derivatives
33 Food saftyTwo major groups of food sensitivity are known as food allergy and food intolerance. Food allergies are abnormal immunologic responses to a particular food or food component. In contrast, food intolerances are non-immunologic responses. Generally, total avoidance of the culprit food is necessary for true food allergies. Food intolerances can be managed by limiting the amount of the food or food ingredient that is eaten. Total avoidance is usually not necessary for food intolerances.
34 AspartameAspartame (951) is an artificial sweetener that is used to replace sugars in foods and beverages. The long term effects of aspartame on health have been studied intensively, but results were inconclusive. It is noted that aspartame induces carcinogenic effects in a dose-related manner. Contradictory results were shown in studies which reported that aspartame consumption in foods and beverages does not raise the risk of or other cancers The acceptable daily intake (ADI) of aspartame is currently 50 mg/kg body weight in the United States
35 BenzoateSodium benzoate (211) is used as a food colouring and preservative in foods. Children who consumed a mixture of food colourings and preservatives from soft drinks and confectionery at high levels were found to be more hyperactive than those who did not have the colourings and preservatives
36 Monosodium glutamate (MSG is often added to food as a flavour enhancer but it can also occur naturally in food. In the safety assessment conducted by has been implicated as the causative agent of Chinese restaurant syndrome (CRS) and asthmatic attacks
37 NitratesNitrates or nitrites are added as a preservative, antimicrobial agent or colour fixative to processed foods such as meats and cheese. Nitrate also occurs naturally in water, vegetables and plants. The human body converts nitrate in food into nitrite. Nitrite has been implicated in a variety of long term health effects, including gastric cancer
38 SulphiteSulphite sensitivity is a food intolerant reaction . Sulphite has many functions, including as a antimicrobial agent. It inhibits enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning, whitens foods, and serves as a dough conditioner. Manifestations of sulphite sensitivity include anaphylaxis and asthma.
39 TartrazineTartrazine (102) is an approved artificial food colour. Tartrazine has been implicated in the aggravation of both asthma and chronic urticaria in some people