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15 Pharmacology. 2 Introduction Pharmacology Drug –Side effect –Drug interaction –Addiction –Habit forming Medicines.

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Presentation on theme: "15 Pharmacology. 2 Introduction Pharmacology Drug –Side effect –Drug interaction –Addiction –Habit forming Medicines."— Presentation transcript:

1 15 Pharmacology

2 2 Introduction Pharmacology Drug –Side effect –Drug interaction –Addiction –Habit forming Medicines

3 3 Drug Names Brand Names Capitalized Registered trademarks Bayer Generic Names Not capitalized Unprotected Less expensive Aspirin

4 4 Prescriptions Parts of a written prescription –Heading –Superscription –Body of prescription Rx symbol Inscription Subscription –Closing of the prescription

5 5 Reference Texts for Pharmacology Council on Dental Therapeutics Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR)

6 6 Latin Abbreviations and English Definitions Used for Prescriptions a.a.of each a.c.before meal b.i.d.twice a day t.i.d.three times a day q.i.d.four times a day

7 7 q.h.every hour q.4.h.every four hours q.8.h.every eight hours sig.take p.c.after meals p.r.n.when necessary or as needed Latin Abbreviations and English Definitions Used for Prescriptions

8 8 Drug Laws Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) Pure Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938) Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control (1970)

9 9 Drug Enforcement Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)

10 10 Drug Schedule for Control Act of 1970 Schedule I –High potential for abuse –No accepted medical use Heroin

11 11 Drug Schedule for Control Act of 1970 Schedule II –High potential for abuse –Accepted medical use Morphine

12 12 Drug Schedule for Control Act of 1970 Schedule III – Lower potential for abuse and medical use Stimulants

13 13 Schedule IV –Less potential for abuse; accepted medical use Antianxiety drugs Schedule V –Least potential for abuse Over-the-counter Drug Schedule for Control Act of 1970

14 14 Dental Assistants and the Law Maintain accurate records Phone or e-mail of prescriptions Maintenance of controlled substances Liaison with pharmaceutical representatives and the pharmacist

15 15 Drug Administration Routes Oral Topical Inhalation Sublingual Rectal

16 16 Drug Administration Routes Intravenous Intramuscular Subcutaneous Intradermal Transdermal

17 17 Drugs Know signs and symptoms of individuals under the influence of drugs Have knowledge of prescribed and illegal drugs and how drugs interact

18 18 Tobacco Uses –No useful purpose Effects –Could lead to heart disease –Promotes high risk of oral and lung cancer –Causes tooth staining, periodontal diseases, and halitosis

19 19 Caffeine Uses –No useful purpose Effects –Causes heart to work harder –Affects nervous system –May cause or irritate ulcers –Too much may be fatal

20 20 Alcohol Uses –No useful purpose Effects –Affects judgement and coordination –Slows reactions –Causes cirrhosis –Slows down body processes

21 21 Marijuana Uses –Derivative –Cancer treatment to decrease nausea and regurgitation Effects –Increases heart rate –Causes lung tissue damage –Causes reproductive system disorders –Deteriorates coordination –Decreases ability to think and speak clearly

22 22 Cocaine Uses –Causes physical and psychological dependency –Medical use has been reduced Effects –Heart problems –Mental disorders –Violent behavior –Death

23 23 Narcotics Addictive depressants used to relieve pain –Heroin –Morphine –Codeine

24 24 Amphetamines Group of stimulant drugs (uppers) –Increases heart and respiratory rates, and blood pressure Causes loss of appetite, nervousness, and restlessness

25 25 Amphetamines Medically treats narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder (ADHD) in children.

26 26 Hallucinogens Drugs that cause people to see and hear images and sounds that do not exist –Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) –Phencyclidine (PCP) –Mescaline

27 27 Barbiturates Sedative drugs that depress brain activity –Amobarbital –Pentobarbital –Secobarbital –Phenobarbital (given to dental patients with severe anxiety)

28 28 Drugs Prescribed Analgesics –Loss of pain without loss of sensation –OTC drugs: Ibuprofen, aspirin, acetaminophen –Prescription drugs Codeine, morphine

29 29 Drugs Prescribed Analgesics side effects –Nausea –Vomiting –Constipation –Breathing difficulties

30 30 Drugs Prescribed Tranquilizers –Produce sedative effect –Reduce tensions and anxieties

31 31 Drugs Prescribed Antibiotics –Used to treat infection –Derived from fungi and molds or are manufactured synthetically –Broad spectrum antibiotics treat a wide range of bacteria

32 32 Drugs Prescribed Antibiotics –Sometimes prescribed to prevent infection –Side effects Nausea, diarrhea, allergic rash

33 33 Drugs Prescribed Penicillin –First group of antibiotic drugs to be discovered was penicillin –Still used to treat tonsillitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia –Penicillin V, Penicillin G benzathine, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Cloxacillin

34 34 Drugs Prescribed Erythromycin –Used by individuals allergic to Penicillin and children in the place of Tetracycline –Can be taken as capsule, liquid, injection, and ointment –Side effects are stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

35 35 Drugs Prescribed Antifungal Agents –Treat infections caused by fungi –Available as tablets, suspension, creams, injections, and suppositories –Side effects are skin irritation, liver, and kidney damage

36 36 Drugs Prescribed Anticholinergics –Used to reduce secretions in lungs prior to surgery –Treats abnormally slow heart rates in emergencies –Dilates eyes for exam

37 37 Herbal and Alternative Medications Consult dentist Caution patients

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