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Principles of design.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of design."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of design

2 Proportion Proportion refers to the size relationships that can be found within an object or design For example, take an Egyptian patterned rug, the proportion of the rug can be: The length compared to the width The size of the border area compared to the middle design The size of the middle design compared to the rug as a whole The rug’s area compared to the entire floor area The amount of each colour in the design

3 proportion Certain proportions create a more pleasing effect than others Generally people prefer rectangles to squares, however if the rectangle is too long and narrow it might express a feeling of discomfort Unequal divisions of space are often preferred Many designers find that dividing a line or form according to the golden section is more visually appealing than dividing it exactly in half

4 The Golden Section The ancient Greeks discovered that if you divide a line somewhere between one-third and one-half the distance from one end, it is more visually appealing The ratio of the larger segment to the smaller segment will equal the ratio of the whole line to the larger segment

5 The Golden Rectangle A rectangle that has sides in ratio of 2 to 3
(short sides are two-thirds the length of the long sides) This is thought to be the most visually satisfying rectangle

6 Scale Refers to how the size of an object or space relates to human beings and to other objects or spaces in a design For example, a wide-screen TV may be better to watch sports, but may be too big for a smaller room Or, a big room with a loveseat instead of a couch may also be out of scale Rooms should also be designed for the humans who are going to live in it Mirrors and pictures should be at eye level, children’s rooms may require smaller furniture

7 Balance Balance in design occurs when the amount, size, or weight of objects on both sides of a center point is equal, or when unequal objects appear to be equal There are two main techniques for achieving balance: Symmetrical balance Asymmetrical balance

8 Balance Symmetrical balance Asymmetrical balance
The arrangement of forms on one side of an imaginary central line is the mirror image of the forms on the opposite side This type of balance expresses quiet and calm Asymmetrical balance The arrangement of forms on either side of an imaginary central line are unmatched, but appear to be in balance This type of balance creates interest

9 Rhythm The principle that suggests connected movement between different parts of a design Rhythm can be achieved in various ways, including: Repetition Radiation Gradation Opposition Transition

10 Rhythm - repetition Rhythm is most often achieve by repetition
Repetition can be created through A A A A in which letter A could represent a window, a pattern in a rug, a bookshelf Repetition can also be created through A B A B A B with two different elements repeating Repeating rhythm helps to lead the eye from one point to another through a space

11 Rhythm - radiation Radiation occurs when lines radiate (or move outward) from a central point Chairs arranged around a round table are an example of radiation

12 Rhythm - gradation A gradual increasing or decreasing of colour, size or pattern For example, arranging books from shortest to tallest This leads the eye from one object to the next, a gradual change of form is usually more pleasing than an abrupt change

13 Rhythm - opposition When lines come together to form right angles
For example, the square corners of a doorway

14 Rhythm - transition When lines change direction by flowing in a curve, or when curved lines lead the eye from one object to another For example, a couch with a back that curves into the arms

15 Emphasis The center of interest or focal point that first catches a viewer’s eye For example, a dramatic structural features such as a colourful stained glass window or a winding staircase; or a large bookshelf or framed poster; or a collection of items grouped together Emphasis can also be used to hide a feature you do not like, for example painting something the same colour as the wall

16 Unity and variety Unity occurs when all parts of a design are related by one idea Variety is achieved when different styles and materials are combined, however it is important to still keep some aspect of harmony when using variety in design Especially when dealing with a smaller space, it is important to have unity, as too much variety can make it feel even smaller

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