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Leadership & Communication

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1 Leadership & Communication
Week (2)

2 Topic Objectives O U T L I N E
Understanding managerial communication Informal and Formal. Define communication. Differentiate between organisational and interpersonal communication. Discuss the types of communication.

3 Importance of Organisational Communication
Most managers spend 75-90% of their time in one of the four communication modes (writing, reading, speaking, listening). Communicating is central to managing: To explain how goals are to be achieved and work is to be done. To gather good information – listening, questioning and observing to uncover people’s feelings, thoughts, motivations, ideas and opinions.

4 Importance of Organisational Communication ( cont.)
Poor communication causes more problems in groups, teams and organisations than any other issue. First-line managers set the scene for the type of communication that will take place in their department and with other departments. This directly influences quality, output and morale.

5 Communication Communication is defined as the transferring and understanding of meaning. Communication The importance of effective communication for a manager cannot be overemphasized because everything a manager does involves communication. Communication involves the transfer of meaning but for communication to be successful then the meaning needs to be imparted and understood. Effective communication is when the message sent is received and interpreted as was intended. Many people believe that good communication is when there is agreement instead of clarity of understanding. This is not always the case. I may understand very clearly what you say but I may totally disagree with you. Regardless of me holding a different view the communication has been effective because it was sent and received and clearly understood.

6 Communication Defined
Communication Functions Control employee behaviour. Foster motivation for what is to be done. Provide a release for emotional expression. Provide information needed to make decisions.

7 Leadership and Communication
Effective communication is an essential part of any successful team. As the leader you are responsible for ensuring that all relevant information is distributed to team members. Without effective communication there can be no leadership.

8 Cont. As the leader of a team, some of the roles that you play are:
coach mentor counsellor As a leader, the way that you communicate with your team will determine the effectiveness of your roles. The ability to send and receive clear messages is the key to effective communication.

9 Communication Effectively communicating to others is a complex process. If it was simply a matter of delivering OUR message and the other person automatically understanding and agreeing, there would be few if any conflicts or misunderstandings around us.

10 Cont. There are many facets to effective communication. It is a complex process that involves a: Sender: the person creating the message Receiver: the person that gets the message Channel: the medium used to transmit the message Message: the information that is to be shared Feedback: the receiver's response to the message Noise: any interference that could distort the message or feedback.

11 Elements of Communication

12 Cont. In addition to the elements of the communication process, you must also consider each person's: Self-concept Family and/or cultural background Language skills and physical abilities Attitudes and values Status or relationship to the other people in the communication

13 Any or all of these elements have the potential to influence the effectiveness of the communication.
For example, if the receiver perceived that the communication is just another attempt to blame them for something that went wrong, they are not likely to become actively involved in the communication unless it is to defend themself. Each party to the communication has a responsibility to ensure that a "shared or common meaning is achieved". Consider the following communication model:


15 Types of Organisational Communication
Some of the many ways we can communicate with others (and ourselves) at work are summarised below:

16 Organisational communication
Organisational communication can be formal Informal Communication can flow: downward laterally diagonally upward ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATION A. Formal versus informal communication. 1. Formal communication refers to communication that follows the official chain of command or is part of the communication required to do one’s job. 2. Informal communication is organisational communication that is not defined by the organisation’s structural hierarchy. a. Informal communication systems permit employees to satisfy their needs for social interaction. b. Informal communication systems can improve an organisation’s performance by creating alternative, and frequently faster and more efficient, channels of communication.

17 Formal versus informal communication
Formal communication refers to communication that follows the official chain of command or is part of the communication required to do one’s job. Informal communication is organisational communication that is not defined by the organisation’s structural hierarchy. a. Informal communication systems permit employees to satisfy their needs for social interaction. b. Informal communication systems can improve an organisation’s performance by creating alternative, and frequently faster and more efficient, channels of communication.

18 Formal Communication Oral Communication Written Communication
Advantages: Speed and feedback. Disadvantage: Distortion of the message. Written Communication Advantages: Tangible and verifiable. Disadvantages: Time consuming and lacks feedback. Nonverbal Communication Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings. Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver’s interpretation of message.

19 Formal Communication E-mail Intranet Extranet Videoconferencing
Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution. Disadvantages: information overload, lack of emotional content, cold and impersonal. Intranet A private organisation-wide information network. Extranet An information network connecting employees with external suppliers, customers, and strategic partners. Videoconferencing An extension of an intranet or extranet that permits face-to-face virtual meetings via video links.

20 Informal Communication: The Grapevine
Grapevine Characteristics Not controlled by management. Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications. Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it. Results from: Desire for information about important situations Uncertain conditions Conditions that cause anxiety

21 Three common communication networks and how they rate on effectiveness criteria
a. The chain network represents communication flowing according to the formal chain of command, both downward and upward. b. The wheel network represents communication flowing between a clearly identifiable and strong leader and others in a work group or team. The leader serves as the hub through whom all communication passes. c. The all-channel network represents communication flowing freely among all members of a work team © Copyright 2003 Pearson Education Australia Figure 14.1 21

22 The communication process
Message Medium Receiver Encoding Decoding Noise Sender List 4 types of “noise” within various communication processes. (see slide 16) Message Feedback © Copyright 2003 Pearson Education Australia Figure 14.2 22

23 Methods for communicating interpersonally
These include: Face to face Telephone Group meetings Formal presentations Memos Postal mail Fax Employee publications Bulletin boards Audio + videotapes Hot lines Electronic mail Computer conferencing Voice mail Teleconferencing Videoconferencing Which types of messages work best with which method? Why?

24 Evaluating communication methods
Managers have a wide variety of communication methods from which to choose. Evaluating the following areas will help decide: Feedback Complexity capacity Breadth potential Confidentiality Encoding ease Decoding ease Time-space constraint Cost Interpersonal warmth Formality Scanability Time of consumption © Copyright 2003 Pearson Education Australia 24

25 Nonverbal communication
Transmission without words Every oral communication is accompanied by a nonverbal message Nonverbal component usually carries the greatest impact Body language- gestures, facial expressions and other body movements that convey meaning Verbal intonation- emphasis someone gives to words or phrases that convey meaning Which sends the more powerful message, verbal or non-verbal communication? 25

26 Non-verbal communication
How we say something is usually more important than the words themselves. Our tone of voice, gestures, movements, the way we stand and our facial expression all add to (or detract from) our words. If your non-verbal communication does not agree with the verbal part of your message , most people will believe the body language over the words. Your verbal and non-verbal communication needs to be congruent (ie. say the same thing).

27 Barriers to effective communication
The material on the CTR covers both the barriers to effective communication and common strategies for overcoming communication barriers. Barriers to effective communication Information overload Filtering Barriers to effective communication Filtering is the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favourable to the receiver. A common communication problem for organisations is that filtering increases as information goes up the vertical structure. Those in most need of good communication are least likely to get it. Selective perception Receiver tend to process information selectively on the basis of their needs, motivations, experience, and background. They also tend to project their own interests and expectations on to the message. Emotions How we feel about a message, its style or content, as well as how we feel generally upon reception can influence decoding and understanding. Language Words mean different things to different people. Agreement on denotative and connotative meaning should not be taken for granted. Nonverbal cues When nonverbal and verbal communication are inconsistent, receivers become confused. Under those circumstances, most people tend to believe the nonverbal cues as conveying the “real meaning.” Overcoming the barriers Use feedback Managers should plan and use a feedback loop in their message formation process to help ensure better communication. Simplify language To minimise possible, “different meanings” choose simple words and words most familiar to the receiver. Listen actively Concentrate on processing messages without evaluation or interpretation. Constrain emotions Messages can elicit emotional reactions and be affected by existing emotional states. Watch nonverbal cues Receivers will attend to discrepant nonverbal messages. Senders should work hard to align verbal and nonverbal cues. Selective perception Defensiveness Language Emotions These barriers are also called “noise.” Nonverbal cues National culture

28 Communication Barriers
filtering A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver.

29 Appropriate Communication Techniques
Ask for feedback Offer feedback Think it through first Repeat, repeat, repeat Use empathy Select the location The six C’s of communication Is it clear? Is it complete? Is it concise? Is it concrete? Is it correct? Is it courteous?

30 Overcoming barriers to effective interpersonal communication
Solutions Use feedback Simplify language Listen actively Constrain emotions Watch nonverbals

31 Avoid distracting actions
Active listening Active listening Exhibit affirmation Avoid distracting actions Ask questions Paraphrase Avoid interrupting Don’t over talk Smooth transitions Make eye contact All help develop effective active listening skills Four essential of active listening the active listener must listen with: (1) intensity; (2) empathy; (3) acceptance; (4) willingness to take responsibility for completeness. Developing effective active learning skills Make eye contact Looking at the speaker focuses your attention and encourages the speaker. Exhibit affirmative nods and appropriate facial expressions Reacting nonverbally to the speaker affirms that you are paying attention and helps motivate them to continue. Avoid distracting actions or gestures Guard against physical movements that indicate your attention is somewhere else. Ask questions This behaviour provides opportunities for clarification, ensures understanding, and lets the speaker know you are processing the information. Paraphrase Restating in your own words what the speaker has said helps ensure effective understanding and lets the speaker know you are really considering what s/he is saying. Avoid interrupting the speaker Speakers appreciate being respected. Don’t second-guess what they might say or disrupt their flow of information. Don’t over talk Don’t try to fill a silence or hog the floor. Communication is a deliberative exchange. Too much talking interferes with consideration of the message. Make smooth transitions between the roles of speaker and listener By concentrating on the speaker, you can help participants take on and relinquish the roles of speaker and listener in turns. Active listening is a key skill, a basis for all the others.

32 effective feedback skills
Impersonal Specific Goal-oriented Positive versus negative feedback Positive feedback is more readily and accurately perceived than negative feedback. Managers must of course provide both positive and negative feedback to subordinates. The key to providing effective negative feedback is to provide constructive criticism to improve performance in a non-threatening manner. Developing effective feedback skills Focus on specific behaviours Feedback should be specific rather than general. Feedback should also be directed at concrete actions not ideas or attitudes. Keep feedback impersonal Be descriptive rather than judgmental. Keep feedback job-related rather than person or trait related. Keep feedback goal-oriented Never forget the purpose of feedback – to accomplish something specific. Design and implement feedback to reach a positive goal. Make feedback well-timed Feedback is most effective when it is in close time proximity to the activity or behaviour it relates to. This is particularly true when the feedback is designed to change a behaviour or action. Ensure understanding Keep feedback concise and complete to facilitate effective transmission, reception, and understanding. Direct negative feedback toward behaviour that the recipient can control Feedback that relates to things beyond the receivers control create frustration and damage the communication process further. Concentrate feedback on information that the receiver can use to make a difference in performance. Developing effective feedback skills Someone you know has just written a poem and it is very weak, trite, soppy, and childish. They request feedback from you on their effort. What would you say? How would you deliver effective feedback? Well-timed Control Understanding

33 Body Language S – The way we Sit, Stand or use Space O – Open up
C – Centre your attention L – Lean slightly forward E – Make Eye contact A – Reflect the other’s language, body, posture, voice R - Reflect the other’s language, body posture, voice






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