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What Is Communication? The transfer and understanding of meaning.

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Presentation on theme: "What Is Communication? The transfer and understanding of meaning."— Presentation transcript:


2 What Is Communication? The transfer and understanding of meaning.
Transfer means the message is transmitted in a form that can be interpreted* by the receiver. Understanding is “getting the picture”; it is not the same as simply receiving or agreeing with the message. *Interpretation = A mental representation of the meaning. Page 196

3 Interpersonal Communication Organizational Communication
What Is Communication? Interpersonal Communication Communication between two or more people Organizational Communication All the patterns, networks, and systems of communication within an organization Page 197

4 Interpersonal Communication Process
The seven elements of the communication process: Source Message Encoding Channel Decoding Receiver Feedback Page 197

5 Interpersonal Communication Process
Source The sender who initiates the message. Message The intended meaning or purpose to be conveyed. Encoding The message converted into symbolic form. In written/printed, verbal or nonverbal actions. Channel The medium used to transmit the message. (face-to-face, , telephone, etc…) Page 197

6 Interpersonal Communication Process
Decoding The receiver’s retranslation of the symbols (visual and/or auditive) into a form that he/she can understand. Receiver The individual to whom the message is directed. Feedback The response from the receiver to the sender that provides knowledge on whether understanding has been achieved. Page 198

7 Interpersonal Communication Process
The entire process is likely to be affected by Noise: Anything that distorts the message and interferes with understanding. E.g.…. Illegible print Inattention by the receiver Background sounds Limited writing, oral, or listening skills Attitudes Sociocultural differences Page 197

8 The Interpersonal Communication Process
Exhibit 10.1 Page 197

9 Interpersonal Communication Methods
Face-to-face Telephone Group meetings Formal presentations Memos Traditional Mail Fax machines Employee publications Bulletin boards Audio- and videotapes Hotlines Computer conferencing Voice mail Teleconferences Videoconferences Page 198

10 Interpersonal Communication
Nonverbal Communication: Communication that is transmitted without words. Body language: Gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements that convey meaning. Situational behaviors that convey meaning Clothing and physical surroundings that imply status Images that control or encourage behaviors Verbal intonation: Emphasis that a speaker gives to certain words or phrases that conveys meaning. It is not “what” you say, but “how” you say it! Page 201

11 Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication
Filtering The deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver. Emotions Interpreting messages differently, depending on whether we’re happy or distressed. Information Overload The quantity of information we have to work with exceeds our capacity to process it. Page 202

12 Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication
Defensiveness When feeling threatened, people react in ways that reduce their ability to achieve mutual understanding. Language Words mean different things to different people. Senders tend to assume that words they use mean the same to the receiver as they do to them. National Culture Culture influences the form and patterns of communication and affect the ways managers communicate. Page 204

13 Interpersonal Communication Barriers
Filtering National Culture Emotions Language Interpersonal Communication Information Overload Defensiveness

14 Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communications
Use Feedback Simplify Language Constrain Emotions Watch Nonverbal Cues Listen Actively Page 205

15 Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communications
Use Feedback Feedback can be verbal or nonverbal Ask questions Look for general comments Simplify Language Choose words, and structure messages to make them understandable to the receiver Page 205

16 Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communications
Constrain Emotions When upset, refrain from communicating until you have regained calmness Watch Nonverbal Cues Watch your actions and gestures (cues) to make sure they convey the desired message Page 205

17 Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communications
Listen Actively Place yourself in the sender’s position to improve understanding of the message content Listen to full meaning without making premature (too soon) interpretations (a mental representation of the meaning). The average person speaks at a rate of 125 to 200 words per minute. The average listener can comprehend up to 400 words per minute. That leaves a lot of time for the mind to be distracted. Page 205

18 Active Listening Behaviors
Source: Based on P.L. Hunsaker, Training in Management Skills (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001). Exhibit 10.4 Page 206

19 Types of Organizational Communication
Formal Communication Communication that follows the official chain of command or is part of the communication required to do one’s job. Informal Communication Communication that is not defined by the organization’s hierarchy. Permits employees to satisfy their need for social interaction. Can improve an organization’s performance by creating faster and more effective channels of communication. Page 207

20 Direction of Communication Flow
Downward Communication Communication that flow from managers to employees. To inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees. Upward Communication Communication that flow from employees to managers. It keeps managers aware of employees’ needs, how they feel about their jobs and how things can be improved. Page 207

21 Direction of Communication Flow
Lateral (Horizontal) Communication Communication that takes place among any employees on the same organizational level. It saves time and facilitates coordination. Cross-functional teams rely on this form of communication. Diagonal Communication Communication that cuts across both work areas and organizational levels. It improves efficiency and speed. Page 207

22 Communication Flows Diagonal Upwa r d Downwa r d Lateral

23 Types of Communication Networks
Chain Network Communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both downward and upward. Wheel Network Communication flows to and from a leader to others in a work team. All-Channel Network Communication flows freely among all members of a work team. Page 209

24 Three Common Organizational Communication Networks and How They Rate on Effectiveness Criteria
Exhibit 10.5 Page 209

25 The Grapevine An informal network of communication that is active in almost every organization. It helps managers identify issues that concern employees. Managers can in turn use the grapevine to disseminate information they consider important Managers can minimize the negative consequences of rumors by communicating openly and honestly with employees in situations where they may not like managerial actions. Page 209

26 Current Communication Issues
Gripe Sites: A gripe site or “complaint” site is a website devoted to criticisms and complaints of an organization. Managers should view them as a source of information. They can uncover employee important issues. They provide a way to judge the mood of the workforce. They can be viewed as a means of upward communication. Page 211

27 Current Communication Issues
Gripe Sites Managers might respond by posting messages on the gripe site to clarify misinformation. Managers might take actions to correct problems that have been written about. Page 211

28 Current Communication Issues
Managing the Organization’s Knowledge Resources Making it easy for employees to communicate and share their knowledge so they can learn from each other ways to do their jobs more effectively and efficiently. Build online information databases that employees can access. Create “communities of practice”. Groups of people who share a concern, a set of problems or interest about a topic and who interact with each other regularly to improve their knowledge and expertise in that area. Strong interaction can be maintained through web sites, and video-conferencing. Page 211

29 Communication and Customer Service
Communication has a significant impact on a customer’s satisfaction with the service. Managers need to make sure that employees who interact with customers are communicating effectively with those customers. Train employees to listen actively and respond to the customer. Make sure information needed to deal with customers issues is readily available. Managers need to develop a strong service culture focused on the personalization of service to each customer. Page 212

30 “Politically Correct” Communication
Certain words can stereotype, intimidate and insult individuals. How to communicate with someone who isn’t like us? We must be sensitive to how certain words might offend others However, choose words carefully to maintain as much clarity as possible in communicating. Sears tells its employees that when talking with a customer in a wheelchair, employees place themselves at the customer’s eye level by sitting down to make it more comfortable for everyone. Page 213

31 C H A P T E R R E V I E W 1/3 Understanding Communications (slides 2, 3) What are the two important parts of the definition of communication? Differentiate between interpersonal and organizational communication. The Process of Interpersonal Communications (slides 5, 6, 9~12, 14) Describe the seven elements of the communication process. List the communication methods managers might use. Describe nonverbal communication an how it takes place. Explain the barriers to effective interpersonal communication and how to overcome them. Page 194

32 Organizational Communication (slides 19~21, 23, 25)
C H A P T E R R E V I E W 2/3 Organizational Communication (slides 19~21, 23, 25) Contrast formal and informal communication. Explain how communication can flow in an organization. Describe the three common communication networks. Discuss how managers should handle the grapevine. Page 194

33 C H A P T E R R E V I E W 3/3 Communication Issues in Today’s Organization (slides 26~30) Discuss how Internet employee gripe sites affect communication. Explain how organizations can manage knowledge. Explain why communicating with customers is an important managerial issue. Describe how political correctness is affecting communication. Page 194

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