3 DefinitionNonverbal communication is all types of communication that do not involve the exchange of wordsFacial expression, clothes, walk, body posture, skin color, hair style, touch, distance, time management, body language...
4 Nonverbal Communication in the Workplace What do the nonverbal behaviors in each of these pictures indicate about the situation?How can you know what might be occurring when there are not any words being spoken?
5 The Significance of Nonverbal Communication It conveys meaningAnywhere from 65-93% of the meaning of a message lies in the nonverbal aspectIt reflects the unspokenNonverbal behaviors can “leak” true feelingsAlbert Mehrabian: As much as 93% of the emotion and meaning in a conversation is conveyed nonverbally.Expressions may appear unnatural when a person tries to conceal true feelings. Often these concealing behaviors will leak a true feeling.
6 Proxemics – the study of the use of space to communicate Personal spaceIntimate – 0 to 18 inchesPersonal – 18 inches to 4 feetSocial – 4 to 12 feetPublic – 12 feet and beyondSemi-fixed spaceHow movable objects are arranged in a spaceAn object’s size, type, expense, etc can all send messagesPersonal Space: The imaginary buffer zone around a person. Edward Hall created the four personal space distances in which communication takes place.
8 How might seating arrangements play a part in each of these pictures? ProxemicsHow might seating arrangements play a part in each of these pictures?What can you tell about each of these situations and the people from the nonverbal messages?
9 Kinesics – the study of body movement GesturePosture reveals:Relationships and statusEmotional stateFacial expression characterized by:Culture, gender, and ageEmblems: Have a direct verbal counterpart and can take it’s placeExample: Giving a thumbs upIllustrators: Complement the spoken messageExample: pointing to an object while also speaking about its locationRegulators: Gestures that control the flow of the conversationExample: Head nodAdaptors: Accompany and help accomplish various psychological needsExample: scratching, covering eyes from a hideous sight
10 Kinesics What might kinesics reveal about this picture? Relationship, emotions, status, culture, etc.
11 Oculesics – the study of eye behavior Eye movementInfluenced by culture, gender, and ageConveys interestRegulates conversationEstablishes credibilityAmericans typically prefer “soft” eye contactAsian cultures typically prefer very little eye contactDiscussion Question: What kinds of preconceptions do you have about appropriate eye contact?Students may talk about concepts such as deception (avoiding eye contact), age relations (do you or do you not look an older person in the eye? Very cultural related), etc.
12 Haptics – the study of touch as used to communicate What are the touch norms at our university?How do you express emotions through touch?Hug, pat on the back, slap on the face
13 How is touch used in a business and professional context? In the workplace, touch should be avoided as to avoid sexual harassment. What is appropriate off the job, may not be okay in the workplace.
14 Vocalics – the study of the use of the voice to convey meaning Regulates conversationVocal cuesTurn takingHelps interpret oral communicationVolumePitchRateHow words are emphasized makes a big difference in how they are understood.Example: Depending on what words are stressed in a sentence can completely change the interpretation of the message. Say this sentence four different ways – each time stressing the underlined word.“Did you fire him?”Each sentence asks very different things!
15 Chronemics – the study of time usage in communication How we regulate interactionsHow we treat others – “wait time”How we prioritize
16 Objectics – the study of how objects influence communication What might clothes communicate about these people?
17 Nonverbal Communication in the Workplace Remember:Actions sell louder than words!
18 Nonverbal Communication in Business Important nonverbal behaviors in business context:Shaking handsEye contact and smilingRemoving desks and tables as barriersUsing the voice effectivelyMatching time orientationsNodding your headAvoiding nervous gesturesStop talking and listenPacing toward “low and slow”Rosenthal’s important nonverbal behaviors in sales contexts
19 Guidelines for Effective Nonverbal Communication You cannot read people “like a book”Consider your nonverbal messagesRecognize the impact status and power haveObserve nonverbal messages in clustersBe cautious when generalizing the meaning of nonverbal cues19