Presentation on theme: "Infectious Disease Disease that can pass from one person to another Also known as communicable diseases."— Presentation transcript:
Infectious Disease Disease that can pass from one person to another Also known as communicable diseases
1860s Joseph Lister British surgeon hypothesized that microorganisms cause infections Used carbolic acid to wash his hands and instruments before surgery/ covered patients bandages with it after surgery This reduced the deaths from infections from 45% to 15% Louis Pasteur French scientist showed that microorganisms causes certain diseases Showed that killing these microorganisms could prevent spread of the diseases Led to pasteurization (heating process widely used today to kill microorganisms in foods like milk)
Pathogens Pathogens Micro-organisms that enter the body & multiply to cause disease 4 major groups of pathogens: Bacteria Virus Fungi Protists
Bacteria Single-cell micro-organisms Release toxins Examples Escherichia coli, a type of bacteria, is a leading cause of food-borne illnesses Tetanus – bacteria on objects/soil Staphylococcus and Streptococcus can cause skin and respiratory infections Staph
Virus Smallest parasite Enter cells, multiply & take over Examples: Influenza virus causes flu West Nile virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV
Fungi Not all are harmful Mushroom/ yeast/ mold/ fungi Some cause rashes Ringworm & athlete’s foot
Spreading Infectious Disease Pathogens need food and a place to live & reproduce Your body may the perfect place for this! You can become infected by a pathogen in one of several ways: Physical contact with infected person Contact with contaminated object Environmental sources Contact with contaminated animals
Person-to-Person Transfer Direct physical contact (kissing, hugging, shaking hands) Ex: If you kiss someone with a cold sore, cold sore viruses can get into your body too. Indirect contact (sneeze, cough) Ex: If a person with pneumonia sneezes, pathogens get into the air. If someone else inhales them, they may catch pneumonia too. Colds, flu and tuberculosis can spread by coughing and sneezing.
Animal Bites If an infected animal bites a person then it can pass the pathogen to that person. Examples: Rabies (dogs,raccoons) Lyme disease (ticks) Malaria (mosquitoes)
Contaminated Object Some pathogens can survive for a time outside a person’s body. Water and food can become contaminated. People can pick up pathogens by using objects that have been touched by an infected person. Examples: Colds and flu Tetanus bacteria
Environmental Sources Some pathogens occur naturally in the environment. Examples: Bacteria causing tetanus live in soil/water Bacteria causing botulism (severe form of food poisoning) lives in soil www.nature.com
The Body’s Defenses Your body has 3 first-lines of defense against pathogens which trap and kill most pathogens with which you come into contact. Skin Breathing passages Mouth and stomach
Go to http://www.diseasedetectives.org/online_activities and complete the following:http://www.diseasedetectives.org/online_activities “Disease Detectives” choose 3 occupations involving infectious disease and summarize what each does “Microbe Gallery” Choose 3 and answer: What it is,where it is found and 2 other facts LISTEN TO THE 3 STORIES LISTED BELOW AND WRITE 2 THINGS YOU LEARN FROM EACHwrite 2 things you learn from each story (total of 4) http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=sYoCIfeVcFk http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=1uBh7Z8QXUE http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=HZcjGedqRR8 THIS CAN ALL BE DONE ON IPAD OR PAPER Now what???
General Defenses Despite the barriers, pathogens can still get into your body. Cells of the body release chemicals that trigger an inflammatory response when they are damaged. (2 nd line of defense) Fluid and certain types of white blood cells leak from blood vessels into nearby tissues to fight the pathogens. All white blood cells fight disease but it is the phagocytes that are involved in the inflammatory response. Phagocytes engulf the pathogen & breaks it down to destroy it. During the inflammatory response, blood vessels widen to increase blood flow, making the area red & swollen.
The Immune System If the infection by a pathogen is severe enough to cause a fever, it triggers the 3 rd line of defense- the immune response. Cells of the immune system distinguish between different kinds of pathogens and react to each with a specific defense. White blood cells that do this are called lymphocytes (T-lymphocytes and B- lymphocytes aka T-cells and B-cells). T-cells distinguish one kind of pathogen from another by recognizing markers (called antigens) on each pathogen. These are markers on cells that the immune system recognizes either as part of your body or coming from outside your body. Each person’s antigens are different from other peoples’. B-cells produce chemicals called antibodies to destroy the pathogens. Antibodies lock onto antigens like puzzle pieces. When antibodies bind to the antigen of a pathogen, they mark it for destruction.
Preventing Infectious Disease As people recover from some diseases, they develop immunity to the diseases. Immunity is the body’s ability to destroy pathogens before they can cause disease. 2 kinds of immunity: active and passive Active immunity: occurs when a person’s own immune system produces antibodies in response to the presence of a pathogen Ex: chicken pox; unlikely to get them again once you’ve had them Usually lasts for many years and sometimes for life Active immunity can be gained by having the disease or by being vaccinated against it. A vaccine is made of pathogens that have been weakened or killed but can still trigger the immune response.
Preventing Infectious Disease Passive immunity Occurs when the antibodies that fight the pathogen come from another source rather than from the person’s own body. Ex: If bitten by a dog, a rabies shot is given which contains antibodies to the rabies antigen. Usually lasts no more than a few months.