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Chapter 10 Nutrition lessons one and two. Pages 254-265
Vocabulary to know Calorie - a unit of heat used to measure the energy your body uses and the energy it receives from food. Nutrients - substances in food that body need to grow and repair and supply energy Nutrition - process in which body takes in and uses food
Hunger – physical drive to eat. Body needs food. Appetite- psychological desire for food.
Fortified- was added. Not there naturally Enriched - added back what was lost during processing Organic - form a living source or once upon a time living source. Inorganic – from a non living source. Like a rock.
Influences of Food Choices http://www.myplate.govhttp://www.myplate.gov. making contemplated healthy decisions. Emotions- Family/culture/friends Media/advertising Time/money/skills/equipment
6 Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates- 4cal/gram, simple (sugar) and complex (starch), fiber, body’s preferred source of energy, 45-65% of overall daily calories should come from this group. Fiber can not be digested needed to remove waste from body 20-35 grams needed each day.comes from fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, seeds. Teen girls are recommended to have 26 grams per day and teen boys 38 grams per day. “ose”words: lactose, fructose, maltose are sugars. Food examples: refined white sugar, brown sugar, honey, naturally occurring sugar in fruit and dairy. Starches are long chains sugars that are linked together. Breads, pasts, beans, corn, potatoes are all examples. All are turned into glucose.
Protein- 4 calories/ gram. Needed for body growth and repair and to build blood cells that carry oxygen. Incomplete and Complete Proteins. Is made of amino acids. Body needs about 20 amino acids. Body can make all except for 9 of them-these are called essential ones and must come from food. Complete have all 9 essential amino acids. Incomplete are missing a few. Can combine 2 or more incompletes to = a complete. Like a peanut butter sandwich. Teen boys should have 52 grams per day and Girls 46 grams per day. 10-15% of total daily calories should come from Protein.
Fat- 9 calories/gram.Needed to transport fat soluble vitamins (ADEK),important to brain development, blood clotting, controlling inflammation, maintain healthy skin and hair. Extra energy is stored as body fat in adipose tissue. This fat protects body and insulates. 3,500 calories = 1 pound of body fat. Lipid is another name for fats.
Trans : solid at room temperature like margarine, and shortening. Were made from oils that were hydrogenated. Not very healthy form of fat, should be limited as could lead to heart disease. Saturated- - usually comes form animals sources and a few plants (palm, coconut) not very healthy form as contains cholesterol (waxy like substance) and too saturated fat much may lead to heart disease. Food examples: cream, butter, lard, fat on and in red meat. Unsaturated- healthiest form. Comes mainly from plant sources, nuts, seeds some fish such as salmon, usually liquid at room temperature (olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil).
Saturated and Trans Fat should contribute less that 10% of daily calorie intake. Fats in General should be less than 25- 35% of daily calorie intake.
Vitamins Help regulate body functions. Each of several types helps body in specific way. Some are water soluble and other Fat soluble. Compounds found in food (organic in nature) Several types. A, B-complex (B1 Thiamine, B2- Riboflavin, B3-Niacin, B6,B12-Colbalmin), D(calciferol, E, K, C (ascorbic acid) Folic acid (folate) Gives no energy. 0 calories/gram. Fat soluble (ADEK) can build up in body and be harmful.
A Night vision, stimulates production of white blood cells, healthy skin and hair, helps repair bones and tissue, aids in immunity Carrots, sweet potatoes, fortified dairy/cereals, tomatoes, egg yolk, leafy green vegetables, fish, liver D Helps body use calcium and phosphorus to build bones and teeth. Aids in immunity and regulates cell growth. Fortified cereals and dairy, salmon and tuna, you make Vitamin D when in sunlight. E Protects cells from damage, aids in blood flow, helps to repair body tissue. Fish, milk, egg yolk, vegetable oils, fruits, nuts, peas, beans, broccoli, spinach, fortified cereal K Essential for blood clotting, aids in bone formation Green leafy vegetables, vegetable oil, broccoli, tomatoes, body makes.
Folic acid Helps body form new cells, reduces risk of birth defects. Dark green leafy vegetables, dry beans and peas, oranges, fortified cereal/grains C Protects against infection, promotes healthy bones, teeth, blood vessels and gums, helps form connective tissue (collagen), helps heal wounds Citrus fruit, berries, peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, spinach, potatoes B 1 Thiamine: helps body use carbohydrates, promotes healthy nervous system Enriched and whole grain cereal and grains, lean pork, liver B 2 Riboflavin: process carb’s, protein and fats, maintain healthy skin. Lean beef, pork and organ meants, legumes, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, enriched grains.
B 3 Niacin: process proteins and fats, healthy skin and nervous system and digestive system. Liver, poultry, fish, eggs, peanuts, beans enriched grains B6 Helps body to use protein and fats, supports immune and nervous system, helps blood carry oxygen, prevents one type of anemia, helps maintain normal glucose levels Organ meats, pork, beef, poultry, fish, eggs, peanuts, bananas, carrots, whole grains, fortified cereals B 12 Cobalamin: maintain healthy nerve cells and RBC, needed for formation of genetic material in cells, prevents one type of anemia. Liver, fish, poultry, clams, sardines, flounder, herring, eggs, milk/diary, fortified cereal
Minerals Elements found in food that are used by body (inorganic material) body must get them from food No energy. 0 calories/gram. Many minerals needed by body. Each is specific to a role in body to promote and maintain normal health.
Calcium Forms bones and teeth, aids in blood clotting,assists muscle and nerve function, Dairy, fortified juice, soy and tofu, chineese cabbage, broccoli, kale, corn tortillas. Phosphorus Maintain healthy bones, helps to produce energy Diary, peas, meat, eggs, some cereal/ and breads. Magnesium Maintain nerve and muscle function, sustains regular heartbeat, aids in bone growth and energy production Meat, milk, green leafy vegetables, whole grain, nuts Iron Part of RBC, needed for carrying oxygen, supports immune system, aids in energy use. Meats, poultry, beans, fortified grains.
Water Essential for most all body functions. Provides no energy. Digestion, and chemical reactions in body Transporting nutrients and removing wastes Storing and releasing heat and cooling body Cushioning eyes, brain and spinal cord Lubricating joints
Girls need about 9 cups of fluids a day Boys need about 13 cups of fluid a day. If you are very active you will need more. If it is a hot climate you will need more. If you feel thirsty you have waited too long to re hydrate. Limit your caffeine intake as it is a diuretic. ( substance that eliminates water from your body)