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Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life 1. Organic chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life 1. Organic chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life

3 1. Organic chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms.

4 2. Carbon atoms are so special because: They have four valence electrons allowing them to join with an electron from another atom to form a strong covalent bond. They can bond with many different elements. They can bond to other carbon atoms forming chains or rings. They have the ability to form millions of different large and complex structures.

5 3. Macromolecules are molecules that are made from thousands or even hundreds of thousands of smaller molecules.

6 4. The four groups of organic compounds found in living things are: Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids Proteins

7 5. Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes.

8 6. The breakdown of sugars supplies immediate energy for all cell activities.

9 7. Living things store extra sugar as complex carbohydrates known as starches.

10 8. Single sugar molecules are called monosaccharides. (simple sugars)

11 9. Three examples of monosaccharides include: Glucose Galactose Fructose

12 10. Large molecules made from monosaccharides are called polysaccharides.

13 11. Three examples of a polysaccharide include:

14 12.

15 13. No. Lipids are not soluble in water.

16 14. The three categories of lipids include: Fats Oils Waxes

17 15. Lipids can be used to: Store energy. To form biological membranes and waterproof coverings.

18 16. Many lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids.

19 17.

20 18. Phosphorous is an element unique to nucleic acids.

21 19. Nucleic acids are assembled from monomers known as nucleotides.

22 20. The three parts of nucleotide are: A 5-carbon sugar A phosphate group A nitrogenous base

23 21. Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.

24 22. The two kinds of nucleic acids are: Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

25 23.

26 24. Proteins are polymers of molecules called amino acids.

27 25.

28 26. More than 20 different amino acids are found in nature.

29 Name the following molecular structure? -It’s not an amino acid/ where is the nitrogen? -It’s not a sugar/ no 1-2-1 ratio! -It’s a lipid/ this lipid is AKA a steroid! Very little “O”

30 27. The instructions for arranging amino acids into many different proteins stored in DNA.

31 28. Three functions of proteins include: Controlling the rate of reactions. Regulating cell processes. Forming bones and muscles. Transporting substances into or out of cells. Helping to fight disease.

32 29. A protein has four levels of organization.

33 30. The function of a protein is determined by its shape.

34 31. Everything that happens in an organism is based on chemical reactions.

35 32. A chemical reaction is a a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals.

36 33. The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction are known as reactants. 34. The compounds produced by a chemical reaction are called products.

37 35. Two reasons some chemical reactions are not practical for living tissue include: They are too slow. They have activation energies that are too high to make them practical.

38 36. An catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.

39 37. Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts.

40 38. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.

41 39. Enzymes are very specific, generally catalyzing only one chemical reaction.

42 40. An enzyme’s name is derived from the reaction it catalyzes. Sucrose Sucrase Products

43 41. Two variables that can affect the action of enzymes include: pHTemperature

44 Finish.

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