1. Organic chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms.
2. Carbon atoms are so special because: They have four valence electrons allowing them to join with an electron from another atom to form a strong covalent bond. They can bond with many different elements. They can bond to other carbon atoms forming chains or rings. They have the ability to form millions of different large and complex structures.
3. Macromolecules are molecules that are made from thousands or even hundreds of thousands of smaller molecules.
4. The four groups of organic compounds found in living things are: Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids Proteins
5. Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes.
6. The breakdown of sugars supplies immediate energy for all cell activities.
7. Living things store extra sugar as complex carbohydrates known as starches.
8. Single sugar molecules are called monosaccharides. (simple sugars)
9. Three examples of monosaccharides include: Glucose Galactose Fructose
10. Large molecules made from monosaccharides are called polysaccharides.
11. Three examples of a polysaccharide include:
26. More than 20 different amino acids are found in nature.
Name the following molecular structure? -It’s not an amino acid/ where is the nitrogen? -It’s not a sugar/ no 1-2-1 ratio! -It’s a lipid/ this lipid is AKA a steroid! Very little “O”
27. The instructions for arranging amino acids into many different proteins stored in DNA.
28. Three functions of proteins include: Controlling the rate of reactions. Regulating cell processes. Forming bones and muscles. Transporting substances into or out of cells. Helping to fight disease.