These are substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter. What are Elements? 5
Atoms are composed of which these three subatomic. (give the charges of each) What are positively charged protons, no charged neutrons, and negatively charged electrons? 10
These are high-energy particles that orbit about the nucleus at very high speeds in different energy levels.15 What are electrons?
These are atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons. What are isotopes? 20
These are the 4 most common elements in living cells. 25 What are Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Carbon?
Matter can exist in these three states. 5 What are solid, liquid, gas?
This type of reaction occurs when one or more substances change to produce one or more new substances. What is a chemical reaction? 10
This is a chemical substance that reduces the amount of activation energy needed for a reaction to take place. What is a catalyst? 15
During this reaction, a reactant gains one or more electrons, becoming more negative in charge. What is a reduction reaction? 20
This type of reaction has a loss of net energy. (Also describe how it is observed on a graph) What is a exothermic reaction, and products are graphed below the reactants. 25
When atoms of two or more different elements are joined by chemical bonds these are formed. 5 What are compounds?
This is what we call atoms with an electrical charge. What are ions? 10
Because of the number of unpaired electrons in its outer shell, carbon is able to form this many covalent bonds with other atoms. What are 4? 15
This is how we explain the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond. In an ionic bond electrons are exchanged between atoms, while atoms in a covalent bond are shared. 20
This is the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state. What is a molecule? 25
What is do not share electrons equally ? 5 A water molecule is polar because its hydrogen and oxygen atoms do this.
The force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge is referred to as this. What is a hydrogen bond? 10
These are the 4 things that can result from hydrogen bonding. What are cohesion, surface tension, adhesion, and capillarity ? 15
The polarity of water allows it to dissolve other polar substances such as______ but doesn’t allow it to dissolve nonpolar substances such as____. What are sugar and oil? 20
Why is ice less dense than water? What is…ice is less dense because of the structure of ice crystals, water molecules in ice are bonded in a way that creates large amounts of open space between the molecules; the open space lattice structure causes ice to have a low density. 25
The amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of solution is called this. What is concentration? 5
A solution with a pH of 7 is considered to be this. What is neutral? 10
A solution in which no more solute can be dissolved is referred to as this. What is a saturated solution ? 15
This is the name of the OH − ion What is the hydroxide ion? 20
Chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base is called this. What is a buffer? 25