Presentation on theme: "Warmup 1)What are some of the factors that affect solubility of a compound? 2) A solution of potassium carbonate and a solution of copper(I) nitrate are."— Presentation transcript:
Warmup 1)What are some of the factors that affect solubility of a compound? 2) A solution of potassium carbonate and a solution of copper(I) nitrate are combined. Write the net ionic equation showing formation of the precipitate. *review your solubility rules. Remember that according to these rules, the salts are soluble/insoluble at a certain concentration 0.1M.
1. Increase surface area of the solute: agitate the solution or break up solute 1. How can we increase the rate of dissolution (how fast the solute dissolves) and solubility? 2. Heat the solution (s and l solutes): molecules move faster and collide more frequently
3. Cool the solution (gas solutes): gas molecules won’t evaporate (lowering solubility) if they have less kinetic energy. 4. Increase pressure (gas solutes): solute can’t evaporate and remains dissolved in the solution How can we increase the rate of dissolution (how fast the solute dissolves) and solubility?
Polar(P) Molecules - Shared e- are unequally distributed among atoms -All ionic compounds are P Nonpolar (NP) Molecules Pretty even e- distribution Most very large molecules are NP
Why does oil not dissolve in water or vinegar? Oil (NP) likes water(P)! But water molecules prefer each other than oil. It is NOT because the molecules repel.
“like dissolves like” Polar solvents are soluble in polar solutes Nonpolar solvents are soluble in nonpolar solutes There are different degrees of solubility….many things are slightly soluble. Water and acetate have weak dipole-dipole interactions. They are soluble; one dissolves in the other! Why are these molecules a soluble combination? (draw please) H -H -
Molecules aren’t just polar or nonpolar. Rank these molecules from most(1) to least(4) polar. HO-HHO-H H H H-C-O-C-H H H H H O H H-C-C-C-H H H H H H H H H H H-C-C-C-C-C-C-H H H H H H H Which compound to the right would be the best solvent for NaCl? Explain. methanol H-O-Cl hexane isopropyl alcohol dihydrogen monoxide 1 2 3 4 H H-C-O-H H (please draw in lone pairs yourself)
Intermolecular Forces (IMF) (Van der Waal forces) much weaker than ionic OR covalent bonds due to attractive forces between opposite charges (+ and -) make solid and liquid molecular compounds possible explain variation in melting and boiling points (etc) Two Main Types: 1. weaker: London Dispersion Forces (“induced dipoles”) 2. stronger: Dipole Interactions (hydrogen bonding is one type)
Physical Properties of Nonpolar Halogens Halogen Molecular Mass (g/mol) Melting Point ( o C) Physical State at Room Temperature Fluorine, F 2 38.0-219.6Gas Chlorine, Cl 2 70.9-101.5Gas Bromine, Br 2 179.8-7.3Liquid Iodine, I 2 253.8113.7Solid Describe and account for these trends. As molar mass increases, melting point increases. The size of the electron cloud MUST play a role in the amount of energy required for a phase change (evaporation too).
London Dispersion Forces electrons on one molecule distorting the electron cloud on another all molecules have them bigger molecule (mass), more electrons, larger induced dipole, stronger LDF, more energy needed to break free! + -- - - -- -- - - + -- - - -- -- - - + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - To melt a solid compound, it is necessary to provide enough energy for each molecule to overcome the attractive intermolecular forces holding it in place.
Which of the following would have the lowest boiling point? Explain. CH 3 CH 3 C 3 H 8 CH 4 ethane propanemethane Lowest mass, lowest LDF!
Dipole interactions Caused by permanent dipole of polar molecules As e- are pulled away from H by F, what is left is an unshielded proton that will strongly attract neighboring e- (+) and (-) ends of compounds attract one another (but are not completely hooked like ionic compounds) HFHF HFHF
Hydrogen Bonding H H O ++ -- ++ H H O ++ -- ++ - One type of dipole-dipole interaction - The strongest of the IM forces 2. According to the diagram, what causes formation of H-bonds? weak H bonds hold DNA bases together H on one molecule partially shares the lone pair on F, O, and N
Revisiting some of these same compounds, which would have high boiling points? Which would have low boiling points? HO-HHO-H H H H-C-O-C-H H H H H O H H-C-C-C-H H H H H H H H H H H-C-C-C-C-C-C-H H H H H H H High: polar stuff like methanol and isopropyl alcohol methanol hexane isopropyl alcohol dihydrogen monoxide H H-C-O-H H Low: nonpolar stuff like dimethyl ether, hexane.