A solution is composed of: Solute: the substance being dissolved Usually a solid. Can be a gas or another liquid. Solvent: the substance doing the dissolving Usually water (aq) Soluble: when a solid is able to dissolve in a liquid Insoluble: when a solid cannot dissolve (precipitate) Immiscible: two liquids that will not mix Miscible: two liquids that will mix
Solvation process: What is happening at the molecular level when a solid dissolves in a liquid? The solid must be “picked apart” layer by layer by the liquid. Water makes a great solvent because it is polar.
5. Pressure Applying pressure forces the molecules to interact.
6. Type of substances Some solutes are more easily dissolved due to less “intermolecular” attraction. Some liquids are better solvents (polarity).
Essential question: What factor has the greatest effect on the rate of solution formation? Choose any two factors. You must test an increase and a decrease for each factor. You must have a control. You should keep all other conditions constant.
How do we measure the concentration of a solution?
1. Percent Concentration: Used more in “every day” life. What are some examples of solutions in your world?
% Concentration = Mass or volume of solute X 100 Mass or volume of solute + solvent Remember: solution = solute + solvent
Examples for % concentration: What is the concentration of a solution that has 25 grams of salt dissolved in 250 ml of water? Ocean water has a salt concentration of 3.5% How much salt and water would I need to make 500 ml of ocean water? Power equipment uses a 2% oil/gas mixture. How much oil (solute) and gas (solvent) would I need to make 2 liters?
2. Molarity and Molar concentrations How chemists make solutions. A 1 molar solution is a solution in which 1 mole of a compound is dissolved in a total volume of 1 litre. 1 M = molar mass of solute dissolved in total volume of 1000 ml
How to make a molar solution: 1. Determine chemical formula of solute. 2. Calculate molar mass of solute. 3. Dissolve solute in water to a final volume of 1000 ml.
Molarity examples: 1. How do you make a one molar solution of calcium chloride? 2. How do you make 500 ml of a one molar solution of calcium chloride? 3. How do you make a 2 molar solution of sodium chloride? 4. What is the molarity of a sodium chloride solution that has 30 grams dissolved in 1000 ml?
Lab: What percent concentration of Kool-Aid will bring the greatest concentration?
Solubility: How much of a solid will dissolve in a given amount of liquid at a given temperature. Often look at solubility curves, or saturation curves.
ToTo Sol. ToTo Solids dissolved in liquids Gases dissolved in liquids As Temperature increases, Solid solubility increases. As Temperature increases, Gas solubility decreases.
What type of solutions exist? SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute can be dissolved UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute can be dissolved SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION Contains more solute than it normally would at that temperature. increasing concentration
A supersaturated solution is unstable, and crystallization will occur upon cooling. A “seed” crystal will disturb the equilibrium and start the crystallization process.
Solubility of Sodium Acetate Temperature ( o C) 0 255075100 Solubility(g/100 g H 2 O) 50 100 150 Supersaturated solution Unsaturated solution Saturated Charles H.Corwin, Introductory Chemistry 2005, page 378
In the world of solubility, “Like dissolves Like” Polar solvents will dissolve polar molecules. Non-polar solvents will dissolve non-polar molecules. Example: Oil-based paint is non-polar, and requires non-polar paint remover for cleaning. Water-based paint can be cleaned with water.
Vitamins Multi Vitamin Provides many essential vitamins “Expensive urine” Water Soluble Vitamin C Must be replenished regularly Fat Soluble Can overdose Vitamin A Can be ingested periodically, stored in body fat