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15-3: The Formation of Solutions

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1 15-3: The Formation of Solutions

2 A Definition: Solvation: the interaction between solute and solvent particles Called hydration when water is the solvent Involves: Breaking of attraction among solvent particles Breaking of attraction among solute particles Formation of attraction between solvent and solute particles

3 Two more definitions Endothermic: energy is absorbed (breaking attractions) Ex: ammomium hydroxide (cold pack) Exothermic: energy is released (forming attractions) Ex: sodium hydroxide or sulfuric acid

4 Solubility… Is the amount of a solute that will dissolve in a specific solvent under existing conditions

5 Factors that influence solubility
Nature of solute and solvent “like dissolves like” Polar and ionic – form solution Non-polar – forms solutions with nonpolar only

6 Factors that influence solubility
Temperature As the temperature increases, the solubility of a gas in a liquid decreases The solubility of a solid solute increases as the temperature increases

7 Factors that influence solubility
Pressure Has little affect on solid and liquid solutes The solubility of a gas in any solvent is increased as the pressure of the gas over the solvent increases

8 Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolving
Surface Area: As the surface area of a solid solute increases, the rate of dissolving increases Stirring: Stirring increases the solubility of a solid solute, but not a gas Temperature: Increasing the temperature causes a solid solute to dissolve faster, but not a gas

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