Presentation on theme: "Solution Concentration"— Presentation transcript:
1 Solution Concentration Molarity(M): Moles solute/1L solutionMolality (m): Moles solute/1kg solventMole fraction (XA): Moles A* total moles solutionMass percent: Mass solute x 100total mass of solution*In some applications, one needs the mole fraction of solvent, not solute.Make sure you find the quantity you need!
13 Metal Alloys:Substitutional alloys are formed when the two metallic components have similar atomic radii and chemical-bonding characteristics. For example, silver and gold form such an alloy over the entire range of possible compositions.
14 Metal Alloys:Interstitial alloys are form when the component present in the interstitial positions between the solvent atoms must have a much smaller covalent radius than the solvent atoms. Typically, an interstitial element is a nonmetal that participates in bonding to neighboring atoms. The presence of the extra bonds provided by the interstitial component causes the metal lattice to become harder, stronger, and less ductile. For example, steel is an alloy of iron that contains up to 3 percent carbon. Steel is much harder and stronger than pure iron.
18 The Solution ProcessSolutes dissolve in solvents by a process called solvation.Polar solvent dissolve polar solutes, non- polar solvents dissolve non-polar solutes. (aka: “like dissolves like”.If two liquids mix to an appreciable extent to form a solution, they are said to be miscible.In contrast, immiscible liquids do not mix to form a solution; they exist in contact with each other as separate layers.
19 Solvation of Ions+When a cation exists in solution, it is surrounded by the negative dipole ends of water molecules.When as anion exists in solution, it is surrounded by the positive dipole ends of water molecules.