The surface of Venus is shrouded in clouds, but the Magellan spacecraft produced radar images of the surface. In this computer-generated view of a Venusian volcano, the vertical relief has been greatly exaggerated.
The Formation of Earth Planetesimals –Combined to form earth Great bombardment –Meteors –Growth of planet 20 metric tons per day
Differentiation –Heat from collisions –Dense material sank to center –Lighter material rose to surface Structure –Core –Mantle –Crust
Researchers attain high pressures, equivalent to those deep inside the Earth and other planets, using the diamond anvil cell. Looking through such diamond cells you can observe pressurized samples such as this high- pressure ice crystal that was formed at room temperature by squeezing water.
The temperature of the atmosphere is a complicated function of altitude. Earth’s Atmosphere
Our Atmosphere 50% below 3.5 miles 90% below 10 miles 99% below 20 miles ozone hole global warming
The concentration of which gas is increasing in our atmosphere leading to global warming? a)water b)acetone c)carbon dioxide d)carbon monoxide e)tri-carbon A Clicker Question.
Ozone absorbs photons with a wavelength between 240 and 310 nm. Most of the ozone is present in the stratosphere Between 30 and 90 km photodissociation of oxygen is possible: O 2 (g) + h 2O(g) Ozone and the Upper Atmosphere
The oxygen atoms can collide with oxygen molecules to form ozone: O(g) + O 2 (g) O 3 (g) Ozone and the Upper Atmosphere
Depletion of the Ozone Layer In 1974 Rowland and Molina showed that chlorine from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) deplete the ozone layer by catalyzing the formation of ClO and O 2. Ozone and the Upper Atmosphere
The Formation of the Moon Big Splash –Large object impacted earth –Parts of mantle blown into orbit –Moon formed from this material
The Inner Solar System Mercury, Venus, Mars –Mercury and Venus too hot for life Mars Exploration –Multiple missions –Found evidence of water
The Outer Solar System Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune –Layered structure –No solid surface Jupiter –Comet Shoemaker-Levy –Galileo spacecraft Saturn –Cassini spacecraft
Moons and Rings of the Outer Planets Moons –Io –Europa –Titan Rings –Ice and rock
Pluto –Outermost planet –.3% of earth’s mass –Three moons –Formation Captured comet or asteroid Still open to question
A Tenth Planet? Xena –Orbits sun every 560 years –One moon –Larger than Pluto
Asteroids, Comets, and Meteors Asteroids –Small rocky bodies –Orbit sun –Most in belt between Mars and Jupiter Comets –Dirty snowballs Orbit outside Pluto Oort cloud Kuiper belt –Halley’s Comet –Stardust and Deep Impact missions Meteoroids, Meteors, and Meteorites –Meteor showers –Original solar system material