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Living Online Module Lesson 25 — Internet Essentials

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1 Living Online Module Lesson 25 — Internet Essentials
Computer Literacy BASICS

2 Computer Literacy BASICS
Objectives Explain the origin of the Internet. Explain how to connect to the Internet and how it works. Understand how to use a browser to surf the Internet. Understand how to customize browser settings. List the major features of the Internet and explain what they do. Computer Literacy BASICS

3 Computer Literacy BASICS
Objectives (cont.) Access a recently visited Web site using the History feature. Refresh a Web page by reloading it directly from the Web site. Explain how a Web site’s security makes it possible to safely provide private information. Understand how to troubleshoot problems encountered when browsing Web pages. Computer Literacy BASICS

4 Computer Literacy BASICS
Vocabulary Browser Cache Cookies Domain name File transfer protocol (FTP) Home page Hyperlink Computer Literacy BASICS

5 Computer Literacy BASICS
Vocabulary (cont.) Hypertext markup language (HTML) Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) Newsgroup Uniform resource locator (URL) Web server Computer Literacy BASICS

6 Origins of the Internet
The Internet is a worldwide network of smaller networks. The Internet evolved from the ARPANET. The ARPANET was the first large-scale network and was developed around 1969 as part of a government research project. ARPANET ceased to exist in 1990, but its functions continue through the Internet. The goal was to create a network that allowed Scientists to share information on military and scientific research. Computer Literacy BASICS

7 Origins of the World Wide Web
The World Wide Web (WWW) began in 1989 when a European organization called CERN created a program that allowed pages to be “linked” through a HTML. The first Web browser, Mosaic, was released in 1993, and there was a 340% increase in Internet use during that year. The Internet is still growing at a fast rate. Computer Literacy BASICS

8 The Internet’s Impact on Society
The Internet has changed how many organizations operate. More than two-thirds of Americans use the Internet at work, home, or school. The Internet is a primary research resource for many students. Computer Literacy BASICS

9 The Internet’s Impact on Society (cont.)
People with disabilities can use the Internet to visit places they cannot physically get to. The world is becoming increasingly interconnected in large part because of the Internet and its almost instant communications. Computer Literacy BASICS

10 The Internet Is Always Changing
The Internet is constantly changing and reshaping itself. It is a loose association of many networks that connects millions of computers around the world. Interoperability means that all brands, models, and makes of computers can communicate with each other on the Internet. Computer Literacy BASICS

11 Protocols Allow Communication
All these different types of computers communicate with each other because they follow an established set of rules that make the communication possible. This set of rules is called a protocol, which creates a standard format for transferring data between two devices. Computer Literacy BASICS

12 Computer Literacy BASICS
The TCP/IP Protocol Computers communicate using TCP/IP protocol. TCP/IP is the international standard for transmitting data. TCP establishes a connection between two host computers. The IP protocol allows you to enter an address of a computer and send something to that address. You can enter an address as a domain name. Computer Literacy BASICS

13 Computer Literacy BASICS
The Domain Name Internet computers all have a unique address. The domain name identifies a site on the Internet and allows a computer to connect to the site’s address. An example of a domain name: Computer Literacy BASICS

14 Accessing the Internet from Home
There are a variety of ways to connect to the Internet for the home user: A telephone line, with a dial-up modem or a dedicated high-speed telephone line A cable modem and cable television connection A wireless connection Computer Literacy BASICS

15 Accessing the Internet from a Business or Public Location
If you connect to the Internet from an office, aca-demic setting, or public venue, such as a library, you may connect to the Internet in other ways: A local area network and a network interface card (NIC) in your computer A high-speed leased line, such as ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) or DSL (Digital Subscriber Lines) A wireless connection Computer Literacy BASICS

16 Connecting to the Internet: Step 1
Locate an Internet service provider (ISP) or an online service. ISPs provide a connection or “on ramp” to the Internet. Online services are large companies, such as America Online and MSN. Computer Literacy BASICS

17 Connecting to the Internet: Step 2
Install some type of telecommunications software to enable your computer to connect to another computer. Your ISP or online service company will provide this software. Or you may be able to use software already installed on a newer computer, especially if it is set up for a wireless connection. Computer Literacy BASICS

18 Connecting to the Internet: Step 3
You will need a software application called a Web browser to access the Web. Most computers purchased today come with a browser already installed. Then you simply launch your browser to connect you to your ISP’s computer, which in turn connects you to the Internet. Computer Literacy BASICS

19 Computer Literacy BASICS
Browser Basics A browser is a program that lets you retrieve documents from the Web. The browser is an interface between you and the Internet. Browsers can display text and images, and newer browsers contain multimedia support as well. Popular browsers are Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator/Communicator. Computer Literacy BASICS

20 Computer Literacy BASICS
Browser Basics (cont.) The browser sends a message to the Web server to retrieve your requested Web page. Then the browser render the HTML code to display the page on your computer. HTML is the language used to create a Web document. You navigate through the Web by using your mouse to point and click on hyperlinked words and images. Computer Literacy BASICS

21 The Internet Explorer Browser Window
Access indicator Title bar Menu bar Toolbar Address bar Go button Scroll bars Document window Computer Literacy BASICS

22 Browser Window Terminology
Computer Literacy BASICS

23 Computer Literacy BASICS
Launching the Browser You can usually launch your browser and connect to the Internet by double-clicking the browser’s icon on your desktop. You will see your default home page when you connect to the Internet. To view a particular site or page, enter the uniform resource locator (URL) for the page in the address bar and press Enter, or click the Go button. Computer Literacy BASICS

24 Customizing Browser Settings
You can change some settings on your browser, such as privacy settings and the default home page. It is easy to change your browser’s home page so you can display a Web page you want to view frequently. Internet Explorer provides access to browser settings from the Tools menu on the browser toolbar. Select the Internet Options menu entry to open a dialog box with tabs that display settings for security, privacy, connections, and the programs your browser automatically uses for Internet services such as , newsgroups, and online conferencing. Computer Literacy BASICS

25 Advanced Browser Settings: Cookies
As you become an experienced Internet user, you may want to change how your browser handles cookies. Cookies are small text files that are created by some Web pages when you visit the site. You must balance the ease of use provided by cookies, which remember Web sites and settings for you, with security issues and storage space available. Computer Literacy BASICS

26 Advanced Browser Settings: The Cache
Some Internet files are temporarily stored in a folder called a cache on your hard disk as you view them. The cache is useful because it speeds up the display of pages you frequently visit. Internet Explorer opens these files directly from your hard disk instead of from the Web. You can set the size of the temporary Internet files folder or empty the files stored in it by clicking the Settings button in the Temporary Internet files section of the General tab in the Internet Options dialog box. Computer Literacy BASICS

27 Using the Internet’s Services
The Internet is made up of many parts. Some of the more popular services include (covered in Lesson 24) World Wide Web Chat rooms Mailing lists FTP Newsgroups Bulletin boards Computer Literacy BASICS

28 Computer Literacy BASICS
The World Wide Web The World Wide Web is NOT the same thing as the Internet. The Web is an application that uses the Internet. The Web consists of millions of electronic files called Web pages. A related collection of Web pages is a Web site. Web sites can be created by businesses, organizations, and individuals. Computer Literacy BASICS

29 The Smithsonian Institution’s Web Site Home Page
Computer Literacy BASICS

30 What Makes a Web Page Work
Web pages usually contain hyperlinks. A hyperlink can transport you to another page or site just by clicking on the hyperlink. The Web has its own underlying protocols that make it possible for all kinds of computers all over the world to view Web pages in similar formats. HTTP is the protocol that defines how Web pages are formatted and transmitted. Computer Literacy BASICS

31 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
You can send and receive Web pages over the Internet because Web servers and Web browsers both can understand HTTP. A Web server is a computer that contains Web pages. Every Web server has its own IP address, and most have a domain name that identifies the IP address. Computer Literacy BASICS

32 Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
Every Web site has a unique address called a Uniform Resource Locator or URL. The first part of an URL indicates the protocol required to access the page. The second part of an URL specifies the IP address or a domain name. The top-level domain at the end of the URL indicates the type of organization or business. Computer Literacy BASICS

33 Computer Literacy BASICS
The Parts of an URL The protocol indicates what rules are used to transmit and interpret the Web page codes. The domain name This indicates that the site is on the Web. The domain extension indicates what type of organization sponsors the Web site. Computer Literacy BASICS

34 Domain Extension Abbreviations
Web sites for organizations outside the United States may include a domain abbreviation that includes a country code, such as uk for the United Kingdom, jp for Japan, or ca for Canada. Computer Literacy BASICS

35 Computer Literacy BASICS
Chat Rooms Chat rooms allow you to talk in real time to one or more people using the computer instead of a telephone. When someone in the chat room sends a message, it appears on the screen for everyone else in that room. Chat rooms provide a place for people with common interests to communicate, but be cautious and do not give out personal information. Computer Literacy BASICS

36 Computer Literacy BASICS
Mailing Lists A mailing list is group of people with a shared or common interest. Their addresses are collected into a group identified by a single name. When someone in the group posts a message, it is sent to everyone in the group. You subscribe to a mailing list just like you subscribe to a magazine. A list owner is the person who manages the list. Computer Literacy BASICS

37 Newsgroups and Bulletin Boards
A newsgroup is a discussion forum or type of bulletin board. Members post messages or responses to other messages. Some newsgroups have a moderator who reviews messages before posting them. Messages are stored on a news server. example Computer Literacy BASICS

38 Computer Literacy BASICS
Online Conferencing Online conferencing allows people to connect online for a class, a meeting, or even a family reunion. Freeware and commercial versions of software, such as CU-SeeMe, provide a chat setting with audio and video. Hardware requirements include a microphone and speakers for audio and a digitizing camera for video. Computer Literacy BASICS

39 Online Conferencing (cont.)
Online conferencing offers many benefits: People all over the world can meet without travel costs. It allows equal time for all participants. It creates a permanent record of the meeting. Computer Literacy BASICS

40 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
File transfer protocol (FTP) is used to download and upload files over the Internet. When you download a browser plug-in file, you are likely using FTP. Some FTP servers require IDs and passwords to access the files on that server, but others permit anonymous access. Files you might want to download from an FTP server include software updates for your printer, an instruction manual, or a new program to test. Computer Literacy BASICS

41 Computer Literacy BASICS
The History Pane Your browser tracks sites you have visited for a certain period of time. To see a list of sites you have visited recently, click the History button on the toolbar to open the History pane. The list of sites you have visited is organized by date, and the Web addresses in the list are hyperlinks. You can clear the History list by clicking the Clear History button on the General tab of the Internet Options dialog box. Computer Literacy BASICS

42 Reloading and Refreshing
If you get a message that a Web page cannot be displayed, click the Refresh button on the browser’s toolbar to reload the page directly from the Web site. Sometimes your cache has an outdated version of a page that is loaded when you try to access a site, so the Refresh button is available to update the page. Computer Literacy BASICS

43 Computer Literacy BASICS
Secure Web Pages Web sites used for financial transactions or e-commerce are more secure than sites that simply provide information. Web sites are secured through encrypted communication. Some Web sites require you to log in with a username and a password. Computer Literacy BASICS

44 Secure Web Pages (cont.)
You may see a padlock icon or another indicator in the status bar of a Web page to indicate the information is secure. If you get a message questioning the security of a site, read the information carefully before deciding whether or not to provide sensitive information. Computer Literacy BASICS

45 Problems Accessing Web Pages
A common problem when browsing the Web is a Page Not Found error, which may provide advice about how to trace a link. If you encounter slow or interrupted page loading, you may be using an outdated browser or the page may have many graphics or special features. Computer Literacy BASICS

46 Problems Accessing Web Pages (cont.)
Spyware is programming that is installed on your computer without your knowledge to gather information about your Web browsing habits or allow “remote control” access to your computer by a hacker. A firewall and other security measures can prevent spyware gaining access to your computer. Computer Literacy BASICS

47 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary Origins of the Internet can be traced to the U.S. Department of Defense. The original name for the Internet was ARPANET. Mosaic was the Internet’s first browser, providing a graphical interface to information on the Web. Computer Literacy BASICS

48 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) To connect to the Internet from a business or academic setting, you probably have a direct connection via a local area network and a network interface card. For the home user, the most common types of Internet connection include a modem and telephone line, a cable modem connection, and a wireless connection. Computer Literacy BASICS

49 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) To connect to the Internet, you need an Internet connection, telecommunications software, and a browser. A browser is a software program you use to retrieve documents from the World Wide Web. Interoperability means that all brands, models, and makes of computers can communicate with each other. Computer Literacy BASICS

50 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) A protocol is a standard format for transferring data between two devices. TCP/IP is the agreed-on international standard for transmitting data. The domain name identifies a site on the Internet. Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Netscape’s Navigator/Communicator are two of the most popular Web browsers. Computer Literacy BASICS

51 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) The HTTP protocol defines how Web messages are formatted and transmitted. Web pages are linked through hypertext. The Web site address is referred to as the URL, or Uniform Resource Locator. Every Web page on the Internet has its own unique address. Computer Literacy BASICS

52 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) Your home page is the first page that displays when you launch your browser. The Web and are two important applications that make use of the Internet. Other features of the Internet include chat rooms, mailing lists, newsgroups and bulletin boards, online conferencing, and file transfer protocol. Computer Literacy BASICS

53 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) You can access a list of recently visited Web sites by clicking the History button on the browser toolbar. The Refresh button on the toolbar reloads a Web page directly from the Web site to provide the most up-to-date version of the page. Computer Literacy BASICS

54 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) Secure Web sites encrypt information and require you to provide account information and/or a password for access to protect private data. Computer Literacy BASICS

55 Computer Literacy BASICS
Summary (cont.) Problems accessing Web pages can involve compatibility issues with your software, Web pages that are no longer available, and spyware, a kind of software installed on your computer without your knowledge that can track your Web use or even control your computer. Computer Literacy BASICS

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