2 WHAT IS A CAUSE? WHAT IS AN EFFECT? Cause and effect depend on each other. You can’t have one without the other. A plane crashed. That is the effect. What are the possible causes? Was it a mechanical or human error? Was it due to the weather? Obviously there are many possible causes.Cause and Effect writing analyzes why something happens.Some effects are caused by multiple causes.Some causes, in turn, can result in multiple effects.
3 Cause and Effect writing typically uses the following questions: Writers use Cause/Effect writing to explain why something happens and/or the results of an event.Cause and Effect writing typically uses the following questions:"What are the causes of X?""What led to X?""Why did X happen?""Why does X happen?""What would be the effects of X?"
4 A very cold weather will make people stay in-doors. Activity 1: Identify the causes or effects in each of the following sentences:A very cold weather will make people stay in-doors.As a result of his injury, he could no longer play tennis.Economic growth creates many jobs which in turn make many families live in better conditions.According to experts, new agricultural methods will help solve many problems.Necessity is the mother of invention.
5 6. I had a cold, so I did not go to class. Activity 1: Identify the causes or effects in each of the following sentences:6. I had a cold, so I did not go to class.7. I did not go to class because I had a cold.8. The government spends a lot of money to provide food for the needy.9. Higher prices are often the result of an increase in consumption.10. Bad roads conditions caused the car accident.
6 Transition Words and Phrases Cause and EffectDegrees of CertaintyLevels of ImportanceAs a resultCertainlyAbove all,BecauseMayEqually important,ConsequentlyNecessarilyMost importantly,Due toPerhapsFirst,If … thenPossiblyInitially,Leads toProbablyLast,ThereforeUndoubtedlyPrimarily,ThusUnquestionablySecond,As a consequenceUndeniablyFinally,
7 1. The weather was cold; therefore, Sally closed the window. Examples1. The weather was cold; therefore, Sally closed the window.2. Sally put on her coat because the weather was cold.3. The weather was cold; consequently, Sally put on her scarf.4. A storm hit the town. As a result, the schools were closed.5. The schools were closed because the storm hit theDo these two:He saw starving children ____________he helped.He helped ____________ he saw starving children.
8 1. Janet got home late.______________ She missed her evening TV program. therefore since because of due to
9 2. Ali missed the bus ________ he woke up late. therefore since because of due to
10 3. Since tomorrow is a holiday, ______ have to go to work. so we do notwe do notas a result, we do notthus, we do not
11 4. Yousef went back to Saudi Arabia _______ to take care of some business in his company. and he neededbecause he neededwhich he neededbecause he need
12 A. Because Ali has not catched 5. __________ any fish yet, he is going to change the bait he is using.A. Because Ali has not catchedB. Ali has not caughtC. Because Ali has not caughtD. Because Ali had not caught
13 6.________, the temperature should begin going up. Now that the sun has started to riseNow that the sun start riseNow the sun risingNow that the sun starting to rise
14 We turned on the heat ________________________. Activity 2: Complete following sent. Make sure you include a transition signal:We turned on the heat ________________________._______________________ when I fell off my bike.Because I helped my mother, __________________.________________it was a very cold day yesterday.Huda spilled some milk on the floor ____________.She was very tired last night ___________________.Adam forgot to come to class early today _______.Our teacher was surprised ____________________.___________________, the football team was angry.When the cat is away, _______________________.
15 There are several possible reasons why my father is in excellent health even though he is over seventy years of age. First, he is in excellent condition because he has stopped smoking cigarettes. He quit smoking cigarettes since whenever he climbed stairs, he would quickly stop several times and cough loudly. He also has good health as a result of stopping eating the wrong kinds of foods. For example, whereas before he would eat fatty red meat and deep-fried dishes several times a week, nowadays he seldom does so. He is also in good physical shape, for he exercises a lot. He swims three times a week at the local gym, and on sunny days he prefers to walk home rather than take the bus. In conclusion, my father is in better shape than some of his children are!
16 Using As a result, Consequently and Therefore I finally decided to tell my parents. As a result, they made sure she ate all her meals.I finally decided to tell her parents, and as a result they made sure she ate all her meals.Consequently:My friend thought she was fat. Consequently, she wouldn’t eat any food.My friend thought she was fat, and consequently she wouldn’t eat any food.Therefore:My friend thought she was fat. Therefore, she wouldn’t eat any food.My friend thought she was fat, and therefore she wouldn’t eat any food.
17 Cars are very convenient. People use them more than they should. Activity 5: Join the following sentences using as a result, consequently or therefore.My parents needed help in their restaurant. I moved back home and worked for them.Cars are very convenient. People use them more than they should.I told Huda I couldn’t meet her. My parents wanted me to help my sister with the homework.I didn’t go to college right away. I wanted to travel for a year after high school.Our school didn’t have a lot of money. The administration decided to cancel some after-school activities.My friends complained that it was difficult to communicate with me. I bought a cell phone.
18 Many situations can cause a friendship to end Many situations can cause a friendship to end. One of those situations happens when a friend moves away and makes new friends; as a result, his or her old friends are often forgotten. Furthermore, busy schedules can cause friendships to end. It is hard to spend time with a friend if one is busy with university, work, and other responsibilities.____________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________In those situations, the friends drift apart. Friends may come and go in everyone’s lives, but no matter how long they are in them, friends leave a lasting impression.
19 Many situations can cause a friendship to end Many situations can cause a friendship to end. One of those situations happens when a friend moves away and makes new friends; as a result, his or her old friends are often forgotten. Furthermore, busy schedules can cause friendships to end. It is hard to spend time with a friend if one is busy with university, work, and other responsibilities. Another reason is the two friends no longer have anything in common or do not like the choices one of them has made. Perhaps one friend is interested in sports or movies or is spending too much time on social media and does not give time to be his or her friends. In addition, sometimes friendships end because of lack of communication. If one friend never calls or s, the friendship ultimately fades and dies. Perhaps the main cause is a fight. If two friends fight and do not make up or cannot forgive each other, there is no reason to be friends anymore. In those situations, the friends drift apart. Friends may come and go in everyone’s lives, but no matter how long they are in them, friends leave a lasting impression.
20 The negative effects of unemployment on society.
21 Steps in Writing a Cause/Effect Paragraph? Decide whether you want to examine the cause or effect.STEP 2Examine each cause and effect thoroughly, using sufficient evidence to prove your points.You should support all causes or effects with:Good examplesDefinitionDescriptionNarration, and/orComparison
22 Causal Patterns Effect Cause Cause Effect Chain reasoning (Cause Effect Effect)
23 Effect Cause Bad road infrastructure Careless driving Lack of law enforcementCar accidents
24 Cause Effect Climatic changes Danger to coastal regions Change in weather patternsGreenhouse Emissions
25 Chain reasoning Global warming Negative effects on natural resources Greenhouse emissionsGlobal warmingNegative effects on natural resourcesChanges to agricultureEndangering wildlife animals
26 Multiple causes effect Nowadays smoking has increased in many different ways because of several causes.* A lot of free time* Surrounded by smokers* Big AdvertisementsIn Conclusion, smoking is a very bad phenomenon and the government must enforce laws that eliminate it.Topic SentenceSmoking FatherSupporting Points(Causes)Concluding Sentence
27 Multiple causes effect Topic Sentence:Watching too much TV has many effects on the physiology and psychology of people.I. Eating disordersA. TV mealsB. obesityII. Communication problemsA. more violenceB. No social interaction
28 There are various reasons why more people are suffering from stress today. One reason is that the fast pace of life nowadays means that we do not always find time to relax. Likewise, it is difficult to find a good work-life balance due to the pressure to produce results at work. Another related cause of stress is the need to earn money to survive in our commercial world. Indeed, life today is very stressful and complex.
29 means – Similarly – cause – due to – one reason - reasons means – Similarly – cause – due to – one reason - reasons There are a number of different _________ why young people from developing countries choose to emigrate. ____________ is that the poor economic situation where they live _________ that they do not have many job opportunities. ___________, it is difficult to earn enough to survive __________ the low level of salaries compared to wealthier countries. Another ________ of emigration is that they are tempted by people’s lifestyles in countries such as the United States and the U.K.
30 means – Likewise- cause - because of - one reason- reasons means – Likewise- cause - because of - one reason- reasons There are a number of _________ why children are more obese nowadays. ___________ is that they eat too much fast food. This unhealthy diet ______ that they put on weight unnecessarily.________, their parents do not supervise what they are eating. Their parents are too busy to supervise their eating habits________ their own busy life-styles. Another ________ of childhood obesity is lack of exercise.
31 to – of – in – of – of – by - for It is now almost certain that global warming has been directly caused _____ man's use of fossil fuels. This has led ____ a big debate about what we should do to reduce the negative effects ____ our actions and how we can make the planet safe for our children's children to live in. One result____ this debate has been to improve the level of "green" education in schools which should result____ greater awareness of this difficult issue. However, in the short term there still remains much to be done. The reason____ this is that we need to address the causes ____ the immediate problem.
32 ___________ because (complete sentence)__ _________. As a result, (complete sentence)____. As a consequence, (complete sentence)Crime rates are increasing because there is much violence on television.The government is building more roads. As a result, the traffic congestion problem has decreased.The economy is improving. As a consequence, the unemployment rates have gone down.
33 Crime rates are increasing because of violence on television. ___________ because of (Noun)___________________due to (Noun)___________________ thanks to (Noun)________Crime rates are increasing because of violence on television.The government is building more roads due to the problem of traffic congestion.The economy is improving thanks to an increase in investment projects.
34 Check which of the following sentences contains a mistake: ____ I was late to work because the heavy traffic.The global population has increased because of much better levels of nutrition.____ It is raining today. As a result, we are not going to the beach.____ It is not easy to generalize because of there are many causes of pollution.____ Because the rise in temperature, the climate in many countries is changing.
35 ____ The increase in crime is due to rising poverty levels. 7 ____ The increase in crime is due to rising poverty levels. 7. ____ We succeeded in getting good grades thanks to your hard work. 8. ____ It was raining heavily. As a consequence, we had to stay home. 9. ____ We had to cancel the match because the bad weather 10. ____ Lizzy spilled milk all over the floor due to she was not careful.
36 Activity 4: Complete the following paragraph providing reasons and examples: The rise of the internet has had profound effects on our lives. First, is now very familiar to us. For instance, many of us can communicate with their friends, relatives and colleagues using s. Moreover, many of us now turn to websites rather than to newspapers or TV for the latest news, sports scores or stock quotes. Second, _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. In conclusion, it is great to live in the age of the internet because of the great benefits it has had on our lives.
38 Correct the problems in the following sentences: 1. all over the country people sell products over the internet, these people are making impressive profits. 2. finally face book help you to find people who loss communicate with them. 3. My friend Larry has a bad habit. He never on time to anything. Arrives ten minutes late everywhere.4. gaza streets have a big traffic problems , that make the street more dangerous.5. In concluding The government must work hard to solve this problems
39 Correct the problems in the following sentences: 6. There some negative effects of unemployment on society first of all, Unemployment cause destroying country economic. 7. Visitors can see many interesting places in Egypt. For example, the pyramids. 8. Second, the negative effects of the pollution on the environment. 9. university is more difficult than high school it depends on students to study hard to get marks.
40 difference despite however different in contrast whereas also because Reading a book is always much better than watching a movie based on a book. ______ the saying “A picture is worth a thousand words,” a book is able to give much more information than a movie can give. The author can ______ give the thoughts of characters; _______, a movie usually conveys only the actions and words of the characters. A book can follow characters and plot lines, ______ a movie usually has less than two hours to tell the story and must follow one plot line. The final______is one of imagination. Each book’s reader can create a ______ mental picture of the characters. A movie, ______, can offer only the vision of the director and actors.
41 A- for instance B- just as C. similarly to D. like Circle the correct answer in each of the followingDistance education is a kind of learning that takes place when the student is in a location away from the classroom, building, or site; ___________, online courses are distance learning courses.A- for instanceB- just asC. similarly toD. like
42 1. My favorite teacher, who just happens to be my uncle, retired from the university last summer. 2. My favorite teacher who just happens to be my uncle, retired from the university last summer. 3. My favorite teacher, who just happens to be my uncle retired from the university last summer. 4. My favorite teacher who just happens to be, my uncle retired from the university last summer.
43 By making sure that no one will park across the driveway again. Select the one that is NOT a sentence fragmentWhile waiting for her neighbor to move the car that blocked the driveway.To avoid hitting the other car, Michael had to back across the corner of the lawn.By making sure that no one will park across the driveway again.Driving in the city during the evening rush hour.
44 Punctuate the following sentences: 1. karen's three favorite foods are pasta pizza and ice cream but her french friend loves only pasta and chocolate cake. 2. the national shakespeare company will perform the following plays athelia macbeth hamlet3. While working out she discovered an amazing fact she was now able to bench-press ten pounds more than the week before.
45 Complete the following paragraph providing reasons and examples: Wearing uniforms to school is a necessary part of a good school environment. First, the uniform helps build a sense of community and school spirit among students. In fact, it allows students to experience suitable dress in a professional environment. Second, ________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________. To conclude, school uniforms are very beneficial for students and create a healthy learning environment.