3 Objectives: Define Stress Explain the three phases of the general adaptation syndrome, and describe what happens physiologically.Examine the health risks that may occur with chronic stress.Discuss psychosocial, environmental and self-imposed sources of stress.Examine special stressors that affect college students and strategies for reducing risk.Explore techniques for coping with unavoidable stress.
4 What is stress? a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense Stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize”a state of mental or emotional strain or suspenseany experience that taxes an individual's energy or well-beingPhysical, mental, or emotional
5 Stress- is the body’s and mind’s reaction to everyday demands or threats. Kinds of Stress:Distress- (or negative stress) on the one hand, can result when there is too much pressure or trauma and you don’t know how to cope with it.What are some examples?Eustress- (or positive stress) on the other hand, can help you achieve your goals.
6 Causes of Stress Minor frustrations like traffic jams or arguments. "Nothing gives one person so much advantage over another as to remain always cool and unruffled under all circumstances." —Thomas JeffersonMinor frustrations like traffic jams or arguments.ArgumentsRelationshipsA major illness or injury to yourself or a family member.DeathLosing a jobPhysical health (lifestyle)Smoking/DrugsEmotional ConcernsUnexpressed or uncontrolled anger, depression, grief, guilt, or low self-esteemEnvironmentSocioeconomic situationLife transitions (puberty, college, entering workforce, etc.)
7 Stressors Kinds of Stressors: Biological Stressors- such as those that come from biochemical imbalances, mental or physical illness, disabilities, or injury.Environmental Stressors- such as poverty, population, crowding, noise, or natural disasters.Cognitive or Thinking Stressors- the way you perceive a situation or what you expect from it.Personal Behavior Stressors- those negative reactions in the body and mind caused by using tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs, or not exercising.Life Situations- having a relative or pet die, parents who separate or divorce, or trouble in relationships with peers.
8 The Body’s Stress Response: When you perceive a situation or event to be a threat, your body begins a stress response. A series of events is put into action as your body prepares itself for “DANGER”.Two major systems of the body……….Nervous SystemEndocrine Systemare active during the body’s response to stressors.
9 Alarm- is the first stage in the stress response, when the body and mind go on high alert. Resistance- is the second stage in the stress response, when the body tries to repair its damage from the stressful event and return to its normal state.Fatigue- is the third stage of stress response, resulting in a tired feeling that lowers one’s level of activity.
12 Stress in Your Life Stress and the Brain: Scientists have determined that in some people, stress upsets a delicate balance among brain chemicals called neurotransmitters.Stress tolerance- is the amount of stress that you can handle before you reach a state of too much stress.
13 Stress and the Body-Mind Connection: There is a clear connection between the health of the mind and the health of the body. Too much stress can raise blood pressure, weaken the immune system, and cause other health risks. It can even lead to premature, or early death.Stress and High Blood Pressure:Mental and emotional stress can cause an increase in your levels cholesterol.When these levels are high, high blood pressure- a condition that contributes to heart disease and stroke- can result.
14 Stress and Headache:When stressed, the muscles in the head and neck contract.When the arteries leading to the brain narrow, blood flow to the brain decreases. When the arteries open up again, the nerve endings press into the artery walls, causing severe throbbing, possibly a loss of balance or coordination, and a change in mood.
15 Stress and Immune Response: Prolonged exposure to stress can compromise your immune response.Your body cannot fight disease as well as it might if you had not undergone so much stress.
16 Signs of Stress Emotional Signs: Physical Signs: Frustration Headaches NervousnessBoredomEdginessFeeling powerlessBeing quick to angerImpatienceMood swingsWorryingLonelinessConfusionCryingLow self-esteemBecoming easily upset without causePhysical Signs:Headachestrembling or twitchingupset stomachMigrainesSweatingRashConstipationDiarrheapounding heartmuscle aches and tightnesstrouble sleepinggrinding teethdry mouthnervous twitches or ticsDizzinessback painringing in ears
17 Stress And The MindStress may contribute to mental disability and emotional dysfunctionThese effects may be manifested as:Lost work productivityDifficulties in relationshipsAbuse of drugs and other substancesDisplaced angerAggressive behavior
18 Sources Of Stress Psychosocial sources of stress: Change Hassles PressureInconsistent goals and behaviorsConflictOverloadBurnoutOther (overcrowding, discrimination, unemployment, poverty)
19 Environmental StressStress that results from events occurring in the physical environmentFloodsHurricanesEarthquakesFiresIndustrial disastersBackground distressors – noise, air and water pollution
20 Stress And The College Student Away from homePressure to make new friendsLarge classesAcademic pressuresNational College Health Assessments reported that stress was the number one factor affecting individual academic performance
21 Managing Your Stress Building Skills to Reduce Stress Assessing your stressorsChanging your responsesLearning to copeDownshiftingManaging Emotional ResponsesLearn to laugh and cryManage hostility and anger
22 Managing Social Interactions Making the Most of Support GroupsImportant part of stress managementMembers include: friends, family members, and co-workersIf no close support group exists for you, there are alternatives: counseling services, clergy, instructors, mental health clinics
23 Behavioral Signs:Not eatingOvereatingCompulsive talkingVerbal or physical outburstsFidgetingUsing alcoholCaffeine or other drugsSmokingGamblingTapping feetDrumming fingersHurryingForgetting one’s valuesWithdrawingReckless and high-risk behaviors like driving too fast.Mental Signs:Trouble reading or thinking clearlyLack of creativityConstant worryObsessive thoughtsInability to make decisionsForgettingLosing sense of humor and perspective
24 Ways to Deal with Stress Alter lifestyleMeditationPhysical exerciseListening to soothing musicDeep breathingNatural and alternative methodsPersonal growth techniquesVisualizationMassageCommunicationEating rightManaging timeManaging Finances