Presentation on theme: "Standard 3: Causes of the American Revolution Tension in the New World French & Indian War Notes (1754-1763)"— Presentation transcript:
Standard 3: Causes of the American Revolution Tension in the New World French & Indian War Notes (1754-1763)
Worlds Colliding in North America In the mid-1700s, these groups struggled for control of North America. The British The French The colonists The American Indians
European Rivals in North America Great Britain, France, & Spain all had North American colonies. The claims of each North American power overlapped.
IMPERIALISM In 1740s, both French and English interested in Ohio River Valley The river gave the French quicker access to the Mississippi River, which led south to Louisiana & had rich, fertile soil. British fur traders and land speculators also claimed territory in the region
IMPERIALISM -the practice of extending the power, control or rule by one country over areas outside its borders -(Example: France wanted to extend its control of the fur trade in the New World, British wanted to secure more land in the New World)
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR French built Fort Duquesne to block British claims to the region In 1754, Governor of Virginia called on a young George Washington to expel the French with a militia army Washington & his militia set up an outpost 40 miles away from Fort Duquesne called Fort Necessity Washington met resistance and was forced to surrender This is the beginning of the war
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR Representatives from the colonies met at the Albany Conference in June 1754 -Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union – called for the colonies to unite under one federal government -Plan was rejected, but effort proved that colonies were beginning to consider uniting for common defense
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR One year after his defeat, Washington heads into battle again, but this time as an aide to the British to drive the French out of the Ohio Valley. The French & their Native American allies ambushed the British causing them to flee. Washington showed courage, but weaknesses in the British army caused many colonists to question their competence.
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR Other Native American tribes joined the French forces For 2 years, the French and their Native American allies battled the British 1756: war spreads to Europe - Seven Years’ War French & Indian War = Seven Years War
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR William Pitt, a British politician, sent troops to North America & took over control of the British troops They began winning battles & the Iroquois decided to support them. The Iroquois were also interested in fighting rivals Native tribes that were fighting with the French Quebec seized by the British in 1761 – turning point of war in North America
TREATY OF PARIS, 1763 War finally ended in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris French power eliminated in North America Spain surrendered control of Florida in exchange for Cuba and the Philippines (because Spain entered the war late to try to help the French) French gave control of New Orleans and all of western Louisiana to Spain
COLONIAL DISCONTENT British borrowed enormous amounts of money to finance the French and Indian War Officials wanted the colonies to pay for part of the war New financial policies upset the colonists and set the two sides on a path towards confrontation
NATIVE AMERICAN DISCONTENT 1763: Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa people, led a war against the British Native Americans attacked forts and towns along the Western frontier Why would the Native Americans join together and attack the British frontier?
PROCLAMATION OF 1763 British could not afford another war Solution: Proclamation of 1763 Prohibited westward expansion beyond an imaginary line extending along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains This enraged farmers and land speculators who wanted to expand in search of more land
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1.How did the Proclamation of 1763 put Great Britain and the colonies on a direct path to confrontation? 2.What did the British gain from their victory in the French and Indian War? 3.Who fought alongside the French in the French and Indian War? 4.What was the significance of the Albany Plan of Union?