Presentation on theme: "DOLCE extensions and applications Nicola Guarino Laboratory for Applied Ontology Institute for Cognitive Sciences and Technology, National Research Council."— Presentation transcript:
DOLCE extensions and applications Nicola Guarino Laboratory for Applied Ontology Institute for Cognitive Sciences and Technology, National Research Council Trento, Italy Thanks to all LOA people! www.loa-cnr.it
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it2 DOLCE a Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering Strong cognitive/linguistic bias: descriptive (as opposite to prescriptive) attitude Categories mirror cognition, common sense, and the lexical structure of natural language. Emphasis on cognitive invariants Focus on design rationale to allow easy comparison with different ontological options Rigorous, systematic, interdisciplinary approach Rich axiomatization 37 basic categories 7 basic relations 80 axioms, 100 definitions, 20 theorems Rigorous quality criteria Documentation
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it3 Methodology: Formal Ontological Analysis Theory of Essence and Identity Theory of Parts (Mereology) Theory of Wholes Theory of Dependence Theory of Composition and Constitution Theory of Properties and Qualities The basis for a common ontology vocabulary
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it4 Qualities and features: a fine-grained approach
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it5 Main DOLCE Extensions ( Thanks to Aldo Gangemi @LOA-RM) Allen-based ontology of time Ontology of common-sense locations Descriptions and reified concepts (D&S ontology) Ontology of functional participation (thematic roles) Ontology of social entities and organizations Ontology of plans and tasks Ontology of information objects Ontology of knowledge content objects (multimedia descriptions ) Ontology of (Web) services (with UKA, VUA) Ontology of semantic middleware (extending DAML-S beyond Web services - by Daniel Oberle at UKA) Core legal ontology (with ITTIG-CNR)
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it6 Mapping with lexicons: the OntoWordNet project (Aldo Gangemi, Alessandro Oltramari, Massimiliano Ciaramita) 809 synsets from WordNet1.6 directly subsumed by a DOLCE+ class Whole WordNet linked to DOLCE+ Lower WordNet levels still need revision Glosses being transformed into DOLCE+ axioms Machine learning applied jointly with foundational ontology WordNet domains being used to create a modular, general purpose domain ontology Ongoing work on ontological analysis of specific WordNet domains (cognition, emotion, psychological feature) Ongoing cooperation with Princeton University.
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it7 A Selection of Most Relevant Projects (2003-2006) WonderWeb (FP5): Ontology Infrastructure for the Semantic Web METOKIS (FP6): Methodologies and tools infrastructure for the development of multimedia knowledge units SEMANTIC MINING (FP6 - NoE): Semantic Interoperability and Data Mining in Biomedicine TICCA (PAT&CNR): Ontology of social interaction MOSTRO (PAT): Modelling Security and Trust Relationships in Organizations IKF : Intelligent Knowledge Fusion (Eureka Project) Ontology of banking transactions (with ELSAG Banklab ) Ontology of Service-Level Agreement and IS monitoring (with SELESTA ) Ontology of Insurance Services (with Nomos SpA) FOS (UN/FAO): Alignment of legacy fishery ontologies TOCAI.IT (Italian Ministry of Research): semantic interoperability across 3 different industrial cooperation models: intra-enterprise integration, supply-chain integration, district level integration NEON (FP6) - Networked Ontologies ONTOGEO (FP6) - Geo-spatial Semantic Web
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it8 The first book on the applications of DOLCE From the introduction: The advanced theory developed by Nicola Guarino and his group (the ISTC-CNR Laboratory for Applied Ontology, inventors of DOLCE and OntoClean) has so far been scattered across many papers. To the best of our knowledge, this book is the first document that carefully collects all the different contributions, puts them in concise definitions, and explains them by a running example. Thus, the book is the ultimate guide to everyone trying to familiarize with the foundational approach to ontological analysis developed at the Laboratory for Applied Ontology.
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it9 Main DOLCE users Berlin-Brandeburgische Akademie der Wissenshaften (Christiane Fellbaum) Berlin-Brandeburgische Akademie der Wissenshaften BioImage Database Development, Dept. of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK (Chris Catton) BioImage Database Development CIDOC-CRM, ISO/CD 21127 (Martin Doerr) CIDOC-CRM W3C Semantic-Web Best Practices and Deployment (SWBPD) Working Group) W3C Semantic-Web Best Practices and Deployment (SWBPD) Working Group ELSAG SpA, Roma (Giovanni Siracusa) ELSAG SpA, Roma UN/FAO Agricultural Ontology Service (Johannes Keizer) UN/FAO Agricultural Ontology Service IBM Software Group Rome Lab (Guido Vetere) IBM Watson Research Center (Chris Welty)Chris Welty Saarland University, Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Systems (Barry Smith) Saarland University, Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Systems University of Leipzig, Dept. of Computer Science (Heinrich Herre) University Friedrich-Alexander, Dept. of Computer Science (Gunter Goerz)Gunter Goerz Institute of Legal Information Theory and Technologies, CNR Language and Computing, Belgium (Werner Ceusters) Institute of Legal Information Theory and Technologies, CNR Language and Computing Nomos SpA, Milano (Massimo Soroldoni) Nomos SpA, Milano Ontology Works (Bill Andersen) Ontology Works Selesta SpA, Roma University of Amsterdam (Jost Breuker) University of Bremen (John Bateman)John Bateman University of Queensland (Robert Colomb) University of Queensland University of Torino, Dept. of Computer Science (Leonardo Lesmo) University of Picardie Jules Verne (Gilles Kassel) University of Geneva (Luc Schneider) Griffith University, Australia (Philippe Martin) Griffith University, Australia University of Paris IV-Sorbonne, Laboratoire LaLICC (Antoine Isaac) MUSIL Muenster Semantic Interoperability Lab (Werner Kuhn) MUSIL Large EU projects: - AceMedia - SmartWeb
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it10 Downloadable versions of DOLCE DOLCE2.1-Lite-Plus: simplified translation of Dolce2.0 that does not consider: modality, temporal indexing, relation composition. It also includes some experimental modules for Plans, Information Objects, Semiotics, Temporal relations, Social notions, etc. OntoWordNet Project Beta version 0.7 of alignment of WordNet 1.6 Noun Synsets to DOLCE2.0-Lite-Plus
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it11 A comment from a user at IBM Watson Research Center Mapping our domain ontology to DOLCE helped us to understand and clarify our domain better
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it13 DOLCE taxonomy
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it14 DOLCE's Basic Ontological Choices Endurants (aka continuants or objects) and Perdurants (aka occurrences or events) distinct categories connected by the relation of participation. Qualities Individual entities inhering in Endurants or Perdurants can live/change with the objects they inhere in Instance of quality kinds, each associated to a Quality Space representing the "values" (qualia) that qualities (of that kind) can assume. Quality Spaces are neither located in time nor in space. Multiplicative approach Different Objects/Events can be spatio-temporally co-localized: the relation of constitution is considered.
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it15 Qualities The rose and the chair have the same color: different color qualities inhere to the two objects they are located in the same quality region Therefore, the same color attribute (red) is ascribed to the two objects
IBM Watson Research Center, March 13, 2006 www.loa-cnr.it16 Physical vs. Non-physical Endurants Physical endurants Inherent spatial localization Not necessarily dependent on other objects Non-physical endurants No inherent spatial localization Dependent on agents mental (depending on singular agents) social (depending on communities of agents) Agentive: a company, an institution Non-agentive: a law, the Divine Comedy, a linguistic system… Descriptions, an extension of DOLCE FIAT Co.