2 What is ecology?Ecology is the study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment.Scientists who study these relationships are called ecologists.
3 Biomes Vs. EcosystemsWe have already learned about biomes. Biomes are large natural area with a similar climate, animals, and plants.
4 Biomes Vs. EcosystemsBiomes and ecosystems are similar in that they both include the living and non-living things of an area. However, ecosystems can be much smaller. A pond or a log can be an ecosystem.An ecosystem is the interaction of living things of an area and the non- living surroundings.
5 Biotic & Abiotic factors Biotic factors are all of the LIVING things of an ecosystem (ex. animals, plants, fungi, bacteria)
6 Biotic & Abiotic factors Abiotic factors are all of the NON-LIVING things of an ecosystem (ex. air, soil, sun, water, wind)
7 Pick out the biotic & abiotic factors of this ecosystem
8 Levels of Organization There are many ways living things interact with other living things in their environment. We describe these living and non-living things in five levels of organization.A single living species is an organism.A group of the same species living together is a population.A group of different species living together is a community.
9 Levels of Organization ecosystems- all the living and nonliving things of an areabiosphere- all life on Earth
10 Energy Flow What do all living things need to survive? air, water, food/energy, & shelterWhere does this energy begin?The sun
11 Energy FlowAll living need similar things to survive. We classify these living things by how they get their energy:Producers- make their own energyConsumers- get their energy from another sourceDecomposers- break down dead/decaying material for energy
12 ProducersProducers make their own food through a process called photosynthesis.Photosynthesis is when a plant converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide and converts it to glucose (food) and oxygen.
13 ProducersThe chemical equation for photosynthesis is 6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2Where: CO2 = carbon dioxide, H2O = water, C6H12O6 = glucose, & O2 = oxygen
14 ConsumersConsumers can eat producers or other consumers. There are four types:1) Herbivores: Eat plants (ex. cows, deer, horses)2) Carnivores: Eat other animals (ex. wolves, coyotes)3) Omnivores: Eat plants and animals (ex. bears, humans)4) Scavengers: Eat dead plants/animals (ex. vulture)
15 Consumers The hunter versus the hunted: Predator- the hunter Prey- the hunted
16 DecomposersDecomposers include fungi and bacteria. They play an important role in nature. They break down the unused dead material and turn them into nutrients for the soil, which plants use to grow.
17 Food ChainsWe can put these living things into a food chain to show the flow of energy.decomposers
18 Food ChainsAlthough all food chains may not show this, they always begin with the sun and end with decomposers.
19 Food Chains We divide food chains into different levels: 1) Producers- plants provide the basis for energy2) Primary consumers- herbivores that eat the plants3) Secondary consumers- animals that eat the primary consumers
20 Food Chains4) Tertiary consumers- animals that eat the secondary consumers5) Quaternary consumers- animals that eat the tertiary consumers
22 Food WebsFood webs show the energy flow among the living things in an ecosystem.They also show that animals can act as different levels of consumers depending on what they eat.
23 Food Webs For example, what are three things the fox eats? Mice, squirrels, rabbitsNow make several food chains from these animals.plant -> mouse -> foxplant -> rabbit -> foxplant -> squirrel -> foxplant -> insect -> mouse -> fox
24 Food Webs plant -> mouse -> fox plant -> rabbit -> fox plant -> squirrel -> foxIn these food chains, the fox is acting a the secondary consumer.plant -> insect -> frog -> foxIn this food chain, the fox is acting as a tertiary consumer.
25 Food WebsNow let’s look at the snake. Create a food chain where the snake is a secondary consumer. Then create one where it is a tertiary consumer.
26 Energy PyramidImagine that we were to take a nature walk in the woods outside. What kinds of living things would we see?Producers:Primary consumers:Higher-level consumers:Which level would we see the most of and the least of?
27 Energy PyramidSo why do we have lots of producers and few higher- level consumers?By the time you get to the end of any food chain, most of the energy that was available at the beginning is no longer available. Scientists came up with the energy pyramid to explain this.Primary consumersSecondary consumerTertiary consumerProducers
28 Energy Pyramid Producers provide the basis for energy. Our primary consumers are the moose and rabbit. They spend much of their time grazing on grass. They will then most of this energy to do everything that is required to live like…Breathe, grow, move, etc.Primary consumersSecondary consumerTertiary consumerProducers
29 Energy PyramidThe moose and rabbit will use 90% of the energy they have eaten.This means only about 10% of the original energy is left to feed the wolf. This 10% is stored in the tissues (muscles, organs, fat, etc.) inside the organism.Primary consumersSecondary consumerTertiary consumerProducers
30 Energy PyramidThe same is true for the wolf. It will use 90% of the energy it got from the moose or rabbit, and 10% will be passed on to the mountain lion.Primary consumersSecondary consumerTertiary consumerProducers
31 Energy PyramidIt takes the energy millions of producers just to support one higher- level consumer. This is why we have so much plant life at the bottom of each food chain yet so few consumers at the top of each food chain.Primary consumersSecondary consumerTertiary consumerProducers