LE 42-3 Hemolymph in sinuses surrounding organs Heart Anterior vessel Ostia Tubular heart An open circulatory system. Lateral vessel A closed circulatory system. Auxiliary hearts Ventral vessels Dorsal vessel (main heart) Small branch vessels in each organ Interstitial fluid Heart
LE 42-4 FISHES Gill capillaries AMPHIBIANS Lung and skin capillaries REPTILES (EXCEPT BIRDS) Lung capillaries MAMMALS AND BIRDS Lung capillaries Gill circulation Heart: Ventricle (V) Atrium (A) Artery Vein Systemic circulation Systemic capillaries Systemic circuit Pulmocutaneous circuit Right Left A A V A V A V Systemic capillaries Right Left Pulmonary circuit Right systemic aorta V A V Systemic capillaries RightLeft Pulmonary circuit A Systemic circuit Left systemic aorta Systemic circuits include all body tissues except lungs. Note that circulatory systems are depicted as if the animal is facing you: with the right side of the heart shown at the left and vice-versa.
LE 42-5 Anterior vena cava Pulmonary artery Capillaries of right lung Aorta Pulmonary vein Right atrium Right ventricle Posterior vena cava Capillaries of abdominal organs and hind limbs Pulmonary vein Left ventricle Left atrium Aorta Pulmonary artery Capillaries of head and forelimbs Capillaries of left lung
LE 42-29a O 2 unloaded from hemoglobin during normal metabolism O 2 reserve that can be unloaded from hemoglobin to tissues with high metabolism P and hemoglobin dissociation at 37°C and pH 7.4 O2O2 P (mm Hg) O2O2 Tissues during exercise Tissues at rest Lungs 10080 6040200 0 40 60 80 100 O 2 saturation of hemoglobin (%)
LE 42-29b Bohr shift: additional O 2 released from hemoglobin at lower pH (higher CO 2 concentration) pH and hemoglobin dissociation P (mm Hg) O2O2 10080 6040200 0 40 60 80 100 O 2 saturation of hemoglobin (%) pH 7.2 pH 7.4
LE 42-30 CO 2 transport from tissues CO 2 produced Tissue cell CO 2 Interstitial fluid Blood plasma within capillary Capillary wall Hemoglobin picks up CO 2 and H + CO 2 transport to lungs To lungs H 2 CO 3 Carbonic acid H2OH2O Hb HCO 3 – Bicarbonate Red blood cell H+H+ + HCO 3 – Hemoglobin releases CO 2 and H + H+H+ + HCO 3 – CO 2 H 2 CO 3 H2OH2O CO 2 Hb Alveolar space in lung