6 The circulatory system as a system of tubes with a pump (heart) and valves to ensure one-way flow of blood
7 Describe the double circulation in terms of: a low pressure circulation to the lungs anda high pressure circulation to the body tissuesHigh Pressure
8 Functions of the Circulatory System Circulatory IntroductionThe human circulatory system consists of:the heartblood vesselsblood
9 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall IB Assessment Statement Draw and Label a diagram of the heart showing the four chambers associated blood vessels, valves and the route of the blood through the heart. Know the relative thickness of the four chambers.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
10 The Heart The heart is a double pump: The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungsThe left side of the heart pumps blood to the rest of the body.
11 The Heart The walls of the heart are composed of cardiac muscle. Contraction of cardiac muscle is myogenic.Myogenic means that it can contract on its own it does not need to be stimulated by a nerve.
12 The Heart The heart is enclosed in a protective sac of tissue. In the walls of the heart, two layers of tissue form around a thick layer of muscle.Contractions of the layer of muscle pump blood.
13 The Heart – Coronary arteries There are many capillaries in the muscular wall of the heart.These are called the coronary arteries.
14 The Heart – Coronary arteries The function of the coronary arteries are listed below:Bring nutrients to heart muscleBring oxygen for aerobic cell respiration, which provides heart tissue with energy necessary for heart contraction.Remove waste products (CO2) from heart muscle
15 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall IB LEARNING OBJECTIVE State the function of the coronary arteriesCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
16 Coronary Heart Disease If the coronary arteries or veins become blocked, the heart muscles become:deprived of oxygen and sugarAnd poisonous waste products build upResulting in a HEART ATTACK.
18 Coronary Heart Disease Blockage of coronary arteries is called coronary heart disease.
19 People at Risk for Coronary Heart Disease Smoking Cigarettes – nicotine damages the circulatory systemDiet – a diet high in saturated fat, salt and cholesterolObesity – Being overweightStress – unmanageable or long term stressGenes – Some people inherit genes that make it more likely
20 A doctor can determine if you have a block coronary arteries by doing an Angiogram. It gives a picture of the coronary arteries.
21 If you have a blocked coronary artery or veins, you can have surgery.
22 Coronary Bypass Surgery In Coronary Bypass Surgery a blood vessel is removed from one part of the body and sewn in the heart muscle
27 The HeartSuperior Vena Cava:Large vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper part of the body to the right atriumRight Atrium
28 Bring oxygen-rich blood from each of the lungs to the left atrium The HeartLeft AtriumPulmonary Veins:Pulmonary Veins:Bring oxygen-rich blood from each of the lungs to the left atrium
29 Pulmonary Arteries Semilunar Valves: The HeartPulmonary ArteriesSemilunar Valves:Prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle after it has entered the pulmonary artery.Right Atrium
30 Atrioventricle (Tricuspid) Valve: The HeartRight AtriumAtrioventricle (Tricuspid)Valve:Prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium after it has entered the right ventricle
31 Right Atrium Inferior Vena Cava: The HeartRight AtriumInferior Vena Cava:Vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium.
32 The HeartLeft AtriumAtrioventricle (Bicuspid) Valve: Prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium after it has entered the left ventricleLeft Ventricle
33 The HeartAortaLeft AtriumSemilunar Valve: Prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after it has entered the aortaLeft Ventricle
34 Bring oxygen-poor blood to the right or left lung The HeartPulmonary Arteries:Bring oxygen-poor blood to the right or left lung
35 Brings oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the body The HeartAorta:Brings oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the body
36 The septum divides the right side of the heart from the left. It prevents the mixing of oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood.
37 The heart has four chambers—two atria and two ventricles. There are two chambers on each side of the septum.The upper chamber, which receives the blood, is the atrium.The lower chamber, which pumps blood out of the heart, is the ventricle.
38 Atria vs. VentriclesBoth Atria have thinner walls than the ventricles, because they only need to pump blood to the ventricles.
39 Left ventricle vs. right ventricle Left Ventricle wall is thicker than the right ventricle, because it pumps blood through the arteries to all the tissues in the bodyRight Ventricle wall is thinner and less muscular than the left ventricle because it is only pumps blood to the lungs
43 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall IB LEARNING OBJECTIVE Explain the action of the heart in terms of collecting blood, pumping blood, and opening and closing the of valves.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
44 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Flow of blood tutorial :Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
45 Circulation Through the Heart Blood enters the heart through the right and left atria.As the heart contracts, blood flows into the ventricles and then out from the ventricles to either the body or the lungs.
46 The HeartThere are flaps of connective tissue called valves between the atria and the ventricles.When the ventricles contract, the valves close, which prevents blood from flowing back into the atria.
47 Blood leaves the left ventricle, and enters the aorta. The HeartAt the exits from the right and left ventricles, valves prevent blood that flows out of the heart from flowing back in.Blood leaves the left ventricle, and enters the aorta.The aorta is one of the blood vessels that carry the blood through the body and back to the heart.
48 Circulation Through the Body The HeartCirculation Through the Body The heart functions as two separate pumps.
49 Pulmonary Circulation The HeartPulmonary CirculationOne pathway circulates blood between the heart and the lungs.This pathway is known as pulmonary circulation.In the lungs, carbon dioxide leaves the blood and oxygen is absorbed. The oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart.
50 This pathway is called systemic circulation. The HeartSystemic CirculationThe second pathway circulates blood between the heart and the rest of the body.This pathway is called systemic circulation.After returning from the lungs, the oxygen-rich blood is pumped to the rest of the body.
51 Circulation of Blood through the Body The HeartCapillaries of head and armsCirculation of Blood through the BodySuperior vena cavaPulmonary arteryAortaPulmonary veinCapillaries of right lungsCapillaries of left lungThe circulatory system is divided into two pathways. Pulmonary circulation carries blood between the heart and the lungs. Systemic circulation carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body. Inferior vena cavaCapillaries of abdominal organs and legs
53 Cardiac Cycle More details Step 1 Diastole The heart muscle is relaxed this is called diastole. There is no pressure in the heart chambers. Blood tries to flow back into the heart but closes the semi-lunar valves.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
54 Cardiac Cycle More details Step 2 Diastole Both atria fill with blood returning to the heart in the veins. The right atria fills with blood returning in the vena cava from the body tissues (deoxygenated). The atrio-ventricular valves are still closed and the atria fill up. When the pressure in the atria is greater than the pressure in the ventricles the atrio-ventricular valves will open.Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
55 Cardiac Cycle More details Step 3 Late Diastole In this diagram the heart is still relaxed (diastole). The pressure of blood returning to the heart and filling the atria is now high enough to open the atrio-ventricular valves. The pressure in the atria is greater than the pressure in the ventricles. Atrio-ventricular valves open Ventricles begin to fill with blood..Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
56 Cardiac Cycle More details Step 4 Atrial systoleBoth atria contract together (see control of heart rate)The muscles of the atria contract.volume of the atria reduces.Pressure of blood increasesBlood flow into the ventricle, filling this chamber and causing the ventricle wall to stretch...Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
57 Cardiac Cycle More details Step 6 Ventricular SystoleThe ventricle contracts (systole)The pressure increases in the ventricleThe atrio-ventricular valve closesThe pressure rises furtherPressure in the ventricle is greater than the artery, semi-lunar valve opensBlood pulses into the arteriesCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
58 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall IB LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Describe the relationship between the structure and function of blood vessels. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
59 Blood Vessels Introduction As blood flows through the circulatory system, it moves through three types of blood vessels:arteriescapillariesveinsBlood Vessels
60 Blood VesselsArteries Large vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues of the body are called arteries.Except for the pulmonary arteries, all arteries carry oxygen-rich blood.Pulmonary artery carries oxygen poor blood from the right side of the heart to the left side
62 Arteries have thick walls. Four parts of the artery:a narrow central tubeA smooth lining so no obstruction to blood flow will occurA thick layer of muscles and elastic fibersA thick outer wall.
63 Thick outer wall Thick muscular layer Thick outer wall Smooth liningThick muscular layerThick outer wallThick outer wallThick outer wallThick outer wallThick outer wallThick outer wallIn the circulatory system, there are three types of blood vessels—arteries, capillaries, and veins. The walls of these vessels contain connective tissue, smooth muscle, and endothelium.Thick muscular layerThick muscular layerThick muscular layerSmooth liningSmooth lining
64 The smallest of the blood vessels are the capillaries. Their walls are only one cell thick, and most are narrow.The capillaries bring nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorb carbon dioxide and other waste products from them.
66 Blood VesselsIn the circulatory system, there are three types of blood vessels—arteries, capillaries, and veins. The walls of these vessels contain connective tissue, smooth muscle, and endothelium.
67 Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart are veins. Veins have thinner walls than arteries.
68 Four parts to the structure of Veins: Wide central tubeThin layer of muscleValvesThin outer wall
69 Thin Outer Wall Thin layer Of muscle Smooth lining Thin Outer Wall In the circulatory system, there are three types of blood vessels—arteries, capillaries, and veins. The walls of these vessels contain connective tissue, smooth muscle, and endothelium.Thin layerOf muscleThin layerOf muscleThin layerOf muscleSmooth liningSmooth liningSmooth liningSmooth lining
71 Large veins contain valves that keep blood moving toward the heart. Blood VesselsValve openLarge veins contain valves that keep blood moving toward the heart.Valve closedValves closedContraction of skeletal muscles helps move blood in veins toward the heart.
73 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall IB LEARNING OBJECTIVE Draw and Label a diagram of the heart showing the four chambers associated blood vessels, valves and the route of the blood through the heart (4 Points)Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
74 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Virtual Heart Dissection:Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall