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Chapter 2

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1. Read section 2.1 complete questions 1-4 p. 41 2. Read section 2.2 complete questions 1-4 p. 45 3. Read section 2.3 complete questions 1-4 p. 54 4. Complete Vocabulary (24 words) on p. 55

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Naturalistic Observation Longitudinal Studies Cross Sectional Study Surveys Case Study Correlations & Explanations Experiments

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Review examples on posters Identify correct/incorrect examples Assign Groups Brainstorm ideas/questions you could answer at WHS Identify your sample population (Who will you interview? Observe?) Form Hypothesis Design your experiment Conduct your experiment over the next 24 hours—it should be done before you come to class on Wed.

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Why would it be important to poll a large group of subjects? Why should someone else try to replicate your experiment?

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What is a double blind experiment? Why would the FDA require double blind experiments? ExperimenterParticipants Single-Blind ExperimentAwareUnaware Double-Blind ExperimentUnaware

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Create a graph(s) to reflect your results so that the information you have gathered can be easily interpreted Calculate the mean, median, mode of your results

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Self-fulfilling prophecy—having expectations about a behavior and then acting in some way, usually unknowingly, to carry out that behavior Everyday we give cues to our expectations, but in science that can lead to mistakes This is why single-blind and double- blind experiments are important

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Placebo effect—change in a patient’s illness or physical state that results solely from the patient’s knowledge and perceptions of treatment No actual medical effects to cause change

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Descriptive Statistics (p. 48) Frequency distribution (p. 49) Normal Curve or bell-shaped curve (p. 51) Curve is symmetrical We can divide the curve into sections and predict how much of the curve or what percentage of cases, falls with in each section

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Most common ways of summarizing information Mean or “Average” score Mode—most frequent score Median—Middle score

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Evaluating how spread out the scores are Most common methods—range and standard deviation Range—subtract lowest from highest score and add one Standard deviation is distance from average—spread out scores have high standard deviation, scores that cluster together have low standards of deviation

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Describes the direction and strength of the relationship between two sets of observations Number will be between +1 and -1 A scatterplot demonstrates the the direction of the relationship between two variables Positive Correlation (+) As one variable increases, the other increases Negative Correlation (-) One variable increases while the other decreases

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Does the data collected support their hypothesis or were the outcomes due to chance? Can use inferential statistics to make generalizations about the population from which the participants come

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Use APA standards Have informed consent Do no harm Respect the results

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