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**3.3 Density Curves and Normal Distributions**

Measuring Center and Spread for Density Curves Normal Distributions The Rule Standardizing Observations Using the Standard Normal Table Inverse Normal Calculations Normal Quantile Plots

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**Exploring Quantitative Data**

2 We now have a kit of graphical and numerical tools for describing distributions. We also have a strategy for exploring data on a single quantitative variable. Now, we’ll add one more step to the strategy. Exploring Quantitative Data Always plot your data: Make a graph. Look for the overall pattern (shape, center, and spread) and for striking departures such as outliers. Calculate a numerical summary to briefly describe center and spread. Sometimes, the overall pattern of a large number of observations is so regular that we can describe it by a smooth curve.

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Density curves A density curve is a mathematical model of a distribution… The total area under the curve, by definition, is equal to 1, or 100%. The area under the curve for a range of values is the proportion of all observations for that range. Area under Density Curve ~ Relative Frequency of Histogram Histogram of a sample with the smoothed, density curve describing theoretically the population. rel. freq of left histogram=287/947=.303 area = .293 under rt. curve

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**Density Curves A density curve is a curve that:**

Is always on or above the horizontal axis Has an area of exactly 1 underneath it A density curve describes the overall pattern of a distribution. The area under the curve and above any range of values on the horizontal axis is the proportion of all observations that fall in that range.

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**Density curves come in many shapes**

Density curves come in many shapes. Some are well known mathematically and others aren’t – but they all lie above the horizontal axis and have total area = 1.

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**Distinguishing the Median and Mean of a Density Curve**

Density Curves Our measures of center and spread apply to density curves as well as to actual sets of observations. 6 Distinguishing the Median and Mean of a Density Curve The median of a density curve is the equal-areas point―the point that divides the area under the curve in half. The mean of a density curve is the balance point, at which the curve would balance if made of solid material. The median and the mean are the same for a symmetric density curve. They both lie at the center of the curve. The mean of a skewed curve is pulled away from the median in the direction of the long tail.

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Density Curves The mean and standard deviation computed from actual observations (data) are denoted by and s, respectively, and are called the sample mean and sample standard deviation. The mean and standard deviation of the idealized distribution represented by the density curve are denoted by µ (“mu”) and (“sigma”), respectively, and are sometimes called the population mean and population standard deviation.

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Normal Distributions One particularly important class of density curves are the Normal curves, which describe Normal distributions. All Normal curves are symmetric, single-peaked, and bell-shaped. A specific Normal curve is described by giving its mean µ and standard deviation σ.

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Normal Distributions A Normal distribution is described by a Normal density curve. Any particular Normal distribution is completely specified by two numbers: its mean µ and standard deviation σ. The mean of a Normal distribution is the center of the symmetric Normal curve. The standard deviation is the distance from the center to the change-of-curvature points on either side, the points of inflection of the density. We abbreviate the Normal distribution with mean µ and standard deviation σ as N(µ,σ).

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**e = 2.71828… The base of the natural logarithm**

Normal distributions Normal – or Gaussian – distributions are a family of symmetrical, bell-shaped density curves defined by a mean m (mu) and a standard deviation s (sigma) : N(m,s). x x e = … The base of the natural logarithm π = pi = …

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**A family of density curves**

Here, means are the same (m = 15) while standard deviations are different (s = 2, 4, and 6). Here, means are different (m = 10, 15, and 20) while standard deviations are the same (s = 3).

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The Rule The Rule In the Normal distribution with mean µ and standard deviation σ: Approximately 68% of the observations fall within σ of µ. Approximately 95% of the observations fall within 2σ of µ. Approximately 99.7% of the observations fall within 3σ of µ. Here’s a N(64.5”, 2.5”) distribution of heights of college-aged females.

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The Rule The distribution of Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) vocabulary scores for 7th-grade students in Gary, Indiana, is close to Normal. Suppose the distribution is N(6.84, 1.55). Sketch the Normal density curve for this distribution. What percent of ITBS vocabulary scores are less than 3.74? What percent of the scores are between 5.29 and 9.94?

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**Standardizing Observations**

If a variable x has a distribution with mean µ and standard deviation σ, then the standardized value of x, or its z-score, is Note z= the number of s.d.’s away from mu that x is…(sorry about the grammer!) All Normal distributions are the same if we measure in units of size σ from the mean µ as center. The standard Normal distribution is the Normal distribution with mean 0 and standard deviation 1. That is, the standard Normal distribution is N(0,1) – it is represented by Z and we write Z ~ N(0,1)

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**The Standard Normal Table**

Because all Normal distributions are the same when we standardize, we can find areas under any Normal curve from a single table. The Standard Normal Table Table A is a table of areas under the standard Normal curve. The table entry for each value z is the area under the curve to the left of z.

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**The Standard Normal Table**

Suppose we want to find the proportion of observations from the standard Normal distribution that are less than 0.81. We can use Table A: P(z < 0.81) = 0.7910 Z 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.7 0.7580 0.7611 0.7642 0.8 0.7881 0.7910 0.7939 0.9 0.8159 0.8186 0.8212

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**area left of z1 – area left of z2**

Tips on using Table A To calculate the area between 2 z- values, first get the area under N(0,1) to the left for each z-value from Table A. Then subtract the smaller area from the larger area. A common mistake made by students is to subtract both z values - it is the areas that are subtracted, not the z-scores! area between z1 and z2 = area left of z1 – area left of z2 area right of z = area left of z

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**How to Solve Problems Involving Normal Distributions**

Normal Calculations How to Solve Problems Involving Normal Distributions Express the problem in terms of the observed variable X. Draw a picture of the distribution of X and shade the area of interest under the curve. Perform calculations. Standardize X to restate the problem in terms of a standard Normal variable Z. Use Table A and the fact that the total area under the curve is 1 to find the required area under the standard Normal curve. Write your conclusion in the context of the problem.

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**Basic Practice of Statistics - 3rd Edition**

Inverse Normal Calculations According to the Health and Nutrition Examination Study of 1976–1980, the heights X (in inches) of adult men aged 18–24 are N(70, 2.8). How tall must a man be (? below) to be in the lower 10% for men aged 18–24? 0.10 ? N(70, 2.8) Chapter 5

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**Basic Practice of Statistics - 3rd Edition**

Inverse Normal Calculations 0.10 ? 70 N(70, 2.8) How tall must a man be in the lower 10% for men aged 18–24? Look up the closest probability (closest to 0.10) in the table. Find the corresponding z the standardized score. The value you seek is that many standard deviations from the mean. z 0.07 0.08 0.09 –1.3 0.0853 0.0838 0.0823 –1.2 .1020 0.1003 0.0985 –1.1 0.1210 0.1190 0.1170 Z = –1.28 Chapter 5

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**Basic Practice of Statistics - 3rd Edition**

Normal Calculations 0.10 ? 70 N(70, 2.8) How tall must a man be in the lower 10% for men aged 18–24? Z = –1.28 We need to “unstandardize” the z-score to find the observed value (x): x = 70 + z(2.8) = 70 + [(-1.28 ) (2.8)] = 70 + (–3.58) = 66.42 A man would have to be approximately inches tall or less to place in the lower 10% of all men in the population. Chapter 5

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Normal Quantile Plots One way to assess if a distribution is indeed approximately Normal is to plot the data on a Normal quantile plot. The data points are ordered from smallest to largest and their percentile ranks are converted to z-scores with Table A. These z-scores are then plotted against the data to create a Normal quantile plot. If the distribution is indeed Normal, the plot will show a straight line, indicating a good match between the data and a Normal distribution – in JMP the points fall within the dotted lines. Systematic deviations from a straight line indicate a non-Normal distribution. Outliers appear as points that are far away from the overall pattern of the plot – some points fall outside the dotted lines in JMP.

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Normal Quantile Plots Good fit to a straight line: the distribution of rainwater pH values is close to normal. The intercept of the line ~ mean of the data and the slope of the line ~ s.d. of the data Curved pattern: The data are not Normally distributed. Instead, it shows a right skew: A few individuals have particularly long survival times. Normal quantile plots are complex to do by hand, but they are easy to do in JMP – under the red triangle, choose Normal Quantile Plot – but notice the difference when compared to the above plots…

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HW: Finish reading section 3.3 Work over all the examples! I’ve put up some videos on computing Normal Probabilities as an online assignment… due 9/19 & 9/22 at 9:00am Work on # , 3.95, , 3.104, , Do as many of these problems in order to really understand what’s going on here! Quiz in class on Monday 9/22 Test #1 on October 1, covering Chapts. 1-4

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