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A Sense of Identity Achieved Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion

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Presentation on theme: "A Sense of Identity Achieved Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion"— Presentation transcript:

1 A Sense of Identity Achieved Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Adolescence Identity Crisis Moratorium Marcia’s Identity Statuses (next slide) Diffusion Foreclosure Achieved


3 Developmental Progress of Identity Formation
Philip Meilman study Age 12-15: diffusion or foreclosure Age 18: moratorium 20% 18 year old; 40% college; slightly more than half of 24 year olds= Id achiev.

4 Influences on Identity Formation
1. Cognitive growth: formal operations 2. Relationships with parents Rejection, neglect: diffusion status Identification w/parents first helps Foreclosure: may not develop own ID Achieved more likely if living independently Moratorium, Identity Achieved Affection and freedom at home

5 Influences on Identity Formation
Prior stage resolution Educational/work history Models/alternatives Personality traits Gender

6 Critique of Identity Status Model
Validity/reliability of test instrument Replication Expand samples Cross-cultural Type model Timing in recent cohorts

7 The Self in a Cross-Cultural Perspective
Culture Gender Age

8 Culture Collectivism vs. Individualism Collectivism
define self as part of group welfare of group; goals social norms duties and obligations

9 Culture Individualism define self as separate from group
personal goals welfare of individual internal processes

10 Implications for the Development of the Self
Childrearing patterns Meaning of different aspects of the self Value systems, i.e. heroes Relationships vs. possessions Motives and behaviors

11 Men, Women and Identity Formation
Gender: sociocultural aspects of being masculine or feminine Gender Identity: set by age three; acts as perceptual filter; expectations deeply ingrained; basis of stereotypes Real gender differences actually small

12 Gender Roles Female Expressive Role establish/maintain relationships
nurturing, cooperation, sensitivity Male Instrumental Role goal/achievement oriented dominance, assertiveness, independence more valued role in society

13 Social Role Theory Contribution of biological factors minimal
Roles learned through socialization Gender splitting

14 Evolutionary Psychology
Natural selection Successful adaptation Cultural processes have coevolved Gender revolution

15 Prominence of the Male Model of Development
Erikson, identity and females Female= deficient or deviant Contradiction- femininity and adulthood Strengths may be dysfunctional in our society

16 Identity Research and Women
Content different while process similar Differences- sociocultural not capacities Foreclosure may = identity achievement Timing

17 Patterns of Age-Related Change in Adult Personality
Declines in neuroticism, extroversion and openness Increase in agreeableness, conscientiousness Rate of change highest age 18-30 Older less: thrill seeking, cheerfulness, openness Older more: self-control, morally responsible, aware of social demands

18 Explanation of Age-Related Changes
Cross-cultural findings suggest nature Advantages at different points in lifespan Orderly pattern to adult personality development regardless of place or time

19 Maintaining Continuity of the Self
Most elders have positive sense of self Cognitive explanation Subjective age Patterns in subjective age Positive or negative subjective age

20 Causes of Low Self-Esteem in Late Adulthood
If negative, unlikely to reverse Drop in self-esteem: loss of physical capacity or loss of control

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