3 ChromosomesHuman body cells have 46 chromosomes. Each parent contributes 23 chromosomes resulting in 23 pairs.The chromosomes that make up a pair (one chromosome from each parent) are called homologous chromosomes.Homologous chromosomes have the same length and centromere position and they carry genes that control the same traits.
5 Chromosome NumberTo maintain the same chromosome number from generation to generation, organisms produce gametes.Gametes: sex cells that have half the number of chromosomes.The symbol n is used to represent the number of chromosomes in a gamete.
6 Chromosome NumberAn organism with n number of chromosomes is called a haploid cell.Fertilization: the process by which one haploid gamete combines with another haploid gamete.As a result of fertilization the cell will now contain a total of 2n chromosomes (n from the female parent and n from the male parent).An organism with 2n chromosomes is called a diploid cell.
8 Asexual vs Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction: only one parent, offspring identical to parent.Sexual Reproduction: two parents combine their genetic material to produce offspring that are genetically different from both parents.
9 Mitosis vs Meiosis Mitosis maintains the chromosome number. Meiosis reduces the chromosome number by half.
11 MeiosisMeiosis: cell division resulting in a reduced number of chromosomes, gamete formation.Occurs in the reproductive structures of organisms that reproduce sexually.Involves two cell divisions called Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
13 Meiosis IChromosome pairs replicate resulting in two haploid (n) daughter cells with duplicated chromosomes different from the sets in the original diploid (2n) cell.Occurs in 4 stages: prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I.Begins with interphase, like in mitosis. Cells increase in size, produce RNA, synthesize proteins, and replicate DNA.
15 Meiosis I: Prophase I Replicated chromosomes become visible. Pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs, each chromosome consists of two chromatids.Crossing over: chromosomal segments are exchanged between a pair of homologous chromosomes producing an exchange of genetic information.Nuclear envelope breaks down and spindles form.
19 Meiosis I: Anaphase IHomologous chromosomes separate and move to the opposite poles of the cell.Sister chromatids remain attached.Each daughter cell will receive only one chromosome from each homologous pair.
34 How Genetics BeganInheritance: the passing of traits to the next generation.Gregor Mendel: published findings on the method and mathematics of inheritance in garden pea plants.
35 Why Pea Plants?Pea plants are easy to grow and many are true- breeding which means they consistently produce offspring with only on form of a trait.Pea plants usually reproduce by self-fertilization (male and female gametes in same flower).Pea plants can easily be cross-pollinated by hand (transferring a male or female gamete in one flower to another flower).
37 The Inheritance of Traits Mendel noticed certain varieties of garden pea plants produced specific forms of a trait, generation after generation.Mendel performed cross pollination by transferring male gametes from the flower of a true-breeding green-seed plant to the female organs of a flower from a true-breeding yellow- seed plant.Mendel called the green-seed plants and the yellow-seed plants the parent generation or P generation.
38 The Inheritance of Traits When Mendel grew the seeds from the cross between the green-seed and yellow-seed plants, all of the offspring had yellow seeds.The offspring of the P cross are called the first filial (F1) generation.
39 The Inheritance of Traits Mendel then planted the F1 generation of yellow seeds to determine whether the green- seed trait was no longer present or if it was being masked.The results of the second filial (F2) generation are as follows: 6022 were yellow and were green (a nearly perfect 3:1 ratio of yellow to green seeds).
40 Inheritance of TraitsMendel studied seven different traits, including: seed or pea color, flower color, seed pod color, seed shape or texture, seed pod shape, stem length, and flower positions.He found that the F1 generation plants from these crosses also showed a 3:1 ratio.
42 Genes in PairsFrom his experiments, Mendel concluded that there must be two forms of the seed trait in the pea plants and that each was controlled by a factor.Allele: an alternative form of a single gene passed from generation to generation.The green-seed and yellow-seed are different forms of a single gene or alleles.
43 Genes in PairsMendel called the form of the trait that appeared in the F1 generation dominant and the form that was masked recessive.The yellow-seed was dominant and the green-seed was recessive.
44 Law of DominanceIf the allele for a trait is dominant it is represented by a capital letter. In Mendel’s case the yellow-seeds were dominant and therefore represented by a Y.If the allele for a trait is recessive it is represented by a lowercase letter. Therefore the green-seeds in Mendel’s experiment would be represented by a y.
45 Law of DominanceAn organism with two of the same alleles for a particular trait is homozygous.Homozygous yellow-seed plants would be YY and homozygous green-seed plants would be yy.
46 Law of DominanceHeterozygous organisms have two different alleles for a trait.In Mendel’s experiment a plant with an allele for yellow-seeds and green-seeds would be represented by Yy.When an organism is heterozygous the dominant allele will be expressed.
47 Genotype and Phenotype Genotype: an organism’s allele pairs.The genotype of a plant with yellow seeds would be YY or Yy.Phenotype: the observable characteristics or outward expression of allele pair.The phenotype of pea plants with the genotype yy would be green seeds.
58 Genetic Recombination The new combination of genes produced by crossing over and independent assortment.The possible combination of genes due to independent assortment can be calculated by the formula 2n where n is the number of chromosomes.
59 Gene LinkageLinked genes are genes that are located close to each other on the same chromosomes.These genes tend to travel together during gamete formation.Linked genes do not segregate independently and are therefore an exception to Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment.
60 Chromosome MapsChromosome Maps: drawings that show the sequence of genes on a chromosome and represent the relative position of genes.The higher the crossover frequency, the farther apart the two genes are because crossing over occurs more frequently between genes that are far apart.The frequency correlates with the relative distance between the two genes.
62 PolyploidyPolyploidy: the occurrence of one or more extra sets of chromosomes in an organism.Ex) 3n: 3 complete sets of chromosomes.Rarely occur in animals but sometimes occur in earthworms and goldfish.Approximately 1 in 3 species of flowering plants are polyploid.Polyploidy is always lethal in humans.