2 Key Terms Polis Acropolis Monarchy Aristocracy Oligarchy Democracy HelotsPhalanx
3 Greek City-StatesPolis, political unit in Ancient Greece made up of city and surrounding villagesAcropolis, fortified hilltop, or the agora, a marketplace, was where citizens gathered
4 Greek Governments Monarchy Aristocracy Ruled by a king Rule is hereditarySome rulers claim divine rightState ruled by nobilityRule is hereditary and based on family, social rank, and wealthSocial status and wealth support rulers’ authority
5 Greek Governments Oligarchy Democracy State ruled by small group of citizensRule based on wealth and abilityRuling groups control militaryState ruled by citizensRule is based on citizenshipMajority rule decides vote
6 Athens Initially an aristocracy Power struggles between rich and poor Reformed government to democracyCitizens participated directly in politics
7 Building Democracy Draco 621 B.C.Developed legal code that all Athenians were equal, rich or poorDealt harshly with criminalsDeath punishment for almost every crimeAllowed debt slavery
8 Building Democracy Solon 594 B.C.Outlawed debt slaveryCreated social classes, but all could still participate in gov’tAny citizen could charge wrongdoer with a crime
9 Building Democracy Cleisthenes Organized citizens by region, not wealthCreated representative government
10 Life in Athens Sons of wealthy families received education Began school around age of 7Reading, grammar, poetry, history, math, and musicLessons in logic and public speakingSpent time each day on fitnessWhen older, military school to prepare for defending Athens
11 Women in Athens Educated at home by mothers Child-rearing, weaving, cooking, managing the household, and other skills for good wives and mothersVery little to do with Athens society outside of the home
12 Sparta Located part of southern Greece known as Peloponnesus Separated from other Greek city-statesMilitary state instead of democracy
13 Sparta Several branches of government Democratic assembly Council of Elders proposed laws2 kings ruled military forces3 social classes: citizens, non-citizens, and helots, or peasants forced to stay on the land they worked
14 Sparta Most powerful army in Greece from 600 to 371 B.C. Individual expression was discouragedDid not value the arts, literature, or other artistic and intellectual pursuitsValued duty, strength, and discipline over freedom, individuality, beauty, and learningWhat’s your profession?
15 Life of a Spartan Inspected at birth Boys taken from home at age of 7, living in army barracksTrained and stayed in barracks until age of 30Expected to serve in army until age of 60
16 Life in Spartan Barracks Spent days marching, exercising, and fightingTrained outside no matter weatherOnly light tunics and no shoesSlept on hard benches without blanketsServed little food, and encouraged to stealProduce tough, resourceful soldiers
17 ReflectionPredict which city-state, Athens or Sparta, would last longer. Explain your reasoning for this choice.