Presentation on theme: "GENDER DIFFERENCES Who are the perpetrators? Who are the victims?"— Presentation transcript:
1 GENDER DIFFERENCESWho are the perpetrators?Who are the victims?
2 DEFINITION OF SEX DIFFERENCES Psychological differences between biological males and females
3 DESCRIPTION OF SEX DIFFERENCES 1. PERFORMANCE SCORES ON TESTS OFVerbal abilities: Females higherSpatial abilities: Males higherMathematical abilities: Males higher Starting in adolescence (Also more male low achievers)
19 ARE GENDER STEREOTYPES TRUE? No, the vast majority of gender stereotypes are not true.Males and females are much more psychologically similar than different.
20 WHAT DEVELOPS? GENDER TYPING 1. Gender Identity Awareness that one is male or femaleage years old
21 WHAT DEVELOPS? GENDER TYPING 2. Gender constancySex is a stable characteristic(age 5 to 7)
22 WHAT DEVELOPS? GENDER TYPING 3. Acquire gender-rolesInternalizemotivesvaluespatterns of behavior that culture considers appropriate for members of that sex
23 DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER STEREOTYPES years Know “correct” behaviorsyears Moral standardsyears Psychological traits, customs
24 DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER STEREOTYPES 4. Adolescence The gender policeGender intensificationMost harsh and rigid5. Early adulthood More tolerant of self & others
25 DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER STEREOTYPES 6. Parenting years More stereotyped behavior “Parental imperative”7. Post-parenting years Androgyny shift
26 GENDER TYPING What Influences It ? 1. Biosocial theory2. Social learning theory3. Cognitive theory
27 GENDER TYPING What Influences It ? 1. Biosocial theoryBiologyChromosomesHormones (prenatal, puberty)Social labelingOthers label and reactSelf labels and reacts
28 GENDER TYPING What Influences It ? 2. Social learning theory:“Gender curriculum”Differential reinforcementRewards and punishmentsDiscipline, expectationsFathers especially importantObservational learningParents, siblings, peers, media
29 GENDER TYPING What Influences It ? 3. Cognitive theoryIntrinsically motivated to belong to their own gender’s “club”Cognitive Developmental TheoryStages of understandingSelf-socialization (active person)Begins with “gender consistency”?
30 GENDER TYPING What Influences It ? 3. Cognitive theoryCognitive Schema TheoryCognitive schema: Organized sets of beliefs and expectations about males and femalesGuide information that people attend to and rememberIn-group/ out-group schemaOwn-sex schema
31 GENDER TYPING What Influences It ? INTEGRATION 1. Biology2. Social experiences3. Cognitive development
32 SO WHAT? CONSEQUENCES OF GENDER STEREOTYPES 1. Opportunity denied.2. Competence: Interest and practice guided by expectations.3. Identity: Internal alienation from true self.
33 Film Clip: Consequences of Gender Role Stereotypes
34 LAST NAME, first name1. Name 3 psychological differences between males & females.2. Are these differences based on biology or socialization or both?3. What are gender stereotypes?4. At what age does “gender intensification” take place?