Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 13 Sex Differences and Gender-Role Development
2 INTRODUCTIONSex – person’s biological identityChromosomes; physical manifestations of identity; hormonal influencesGender – person’s social and cultural identity as male or femaleGender typing – process of acquiring a gender identity and the motives, values, and behaviors considered appropriate for their biological sex
3 CATEGORIZING MALES AND FEMALES: GENDER ROLE STANDARDS Gender role standard – value, motive, or behavior considered more appropriate for members of one sex than the otherExpressive role – female – kind, nurturing, cooperative, sensitive to others’ needsInstrumental role – male – dominant, assertive, independent, and competitive
4 Table 13.1 Sex Differences in the Socialization of Five Attributes in 110 Societies. NOTE: The percentages for each attribute do not add to 100 because some of the societies did not place differential pressures on boys and girls with respect to that attribute. For example, 18% of the societies for which pertinent data were available did not differentiate between the sexes in the socialization of nurturance. SOURCE: Adapted from BARRY, BACON, & CHILD, 1957.
5 SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES Actual Psychological Differences Between the SexesVerbal Ability – girls are superiorVisual/Spatial Abilities – boys are superiorEvident by 4, persists across life spanMathematical AbilitiesIn adolescence, boys better at arithmetic reasoningGirls better at computational skills
6 Figure 13.1 A spatial task for which sex differences in performance have been found. FROM LINN & PETERSEN, 1985.
7 SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES AggressionBeginning at age 2, boys are more physically and verbally aggressiveGirls more likely to display covert aggression
8 SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES Other Sex DifferencesActivity level – boys are more physically active (even before birth)Fear, timidity, and risk-taking – girls are more fearful, timid, and take fewer risksNo difference in cognitive impulsivityDevelopmental vulnerability – boys are more vulnerable to prenatal and perinatal hazards and disease
9 SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES Emotional expressivity / sensitivityBeginning in toddlerhoodBoys express more angerGirls express most other emotions more frequentlyCompliance – girls are more compliant
10 SOME FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT SEX DIFFERENCES ConclusionsDifferences reflect group averagesDifferences are smallDifferences are most apparent at the extremesMales and females are much more psychologically similar than they are different
11 Figure 13.2 These two distributions of scores-one for males, one for females-give some idea of the size of the gap between the sexes in abilities for which sex differences are consistently found. Despite a small difference in average performance, the scores of males and females overlap considerably. APAPTED FROM HYDE, FENNEMA, & LAMON, 1990.
12 CULTURAL MYTHSMost gender-role stereotypes are “cultural myths”No basis in factDue to well-ingrained cognitive schemasInterpret and distort behavior
13 CULTURAL MYTHSDo Cultural Myths Contribute to Sex Differences in Ability/Vocational Opportunity?Self-fulfilling prophecy actually promotes sex differences in cognitive performanceHome InfluencesParents expect sons to outperform daughters in mathSon’s successes are due to ability, daughter’s due to hard work
14 CULTURAL MYTHSHome Influences, continuedChildren internalize parent’s views, boys become self-confidentGirls lose interest in math, due to perceived lack of abilityScholastic InfluencesTeachers have similar views affecting children in a similar manner
15 DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING Development of the Gender ConceptBy age 2 ½ to 3, accurately label oneself as a boy or girl5 to 7 years – gender is unchanging
16 DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING Development of Gender-Role StereotypesPresent at 2 to 3 years, once children can label pictures of children as boys or girls3 to 7 – view gender-role standards as rules8 to 9 – more flexible, distinction between moral rules and gender-role standards
17 DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING Cultural InfluencesCollectivist societies tend to encourage conforming to gender-role standardsAdolescent Thinking About Gender StereotypesLess flexible again; increased pressure to conform – gender intensificationLater in high school, may be more flexible again
18 Figure 13.3 Children’s rankings of the wrongness of gender-role transgressions (such as a boy’s wearing nail polish) and violations of moral rules (such as pushing another child from a swing). Notice that children of all ages deplore immoral acts but that only kindergartners and adolescents view gender-role violations as wrong. Elementary school children come to think about gender-role standards in a more flexible way than they did earlier in life, but adolescents become concerned about the psychological implications of deviating from one’s “proper” gender identity. ADAPTED FROM STODDARD & TURIEL, 1985.
19 DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING Development of Gender-Typed Behavior14 to 22 months – prefer gender appropriate toysGender Segregation2 years, girls prefer playing with girls3 years, boys prefer playing with boysDue to differences in play stylesCognitive and social-cognitive development
20 Figure Two- to 3-year-old toddlers already prefer playmates of their own sex. Boys are much more social with boys than with girls, whereas girls are more outgoing with girls than with boys. ADAPTED FROM JACKLIN & MACCOBY, 1978.
21 DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING Sex Differences in Gender-Typed BehaviorMales have greater statusMales feel stronger pressure to adhere to gender appropriate codesMost girls do comply with prescriptions for the feminine role by adolescenceBe attractive to opposite sexConcern of others evaluations
22 Table 13.2 Percentages of Boys and Girls Who Requested Popular “Masculine” and “Feminine” Items from Santa Claus. SOURCE: Adapted from Richardson & Simpson, 1982.
23 DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING Subcultural Variations in Gender-TypingMiddle class adolescents hold more flexible gender-role attitudes then low SES peersAfrican American children hold less stereotyped views of women than European American childrenBoth due to differences in education and family life
24 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Evolutionary TheoryMales and females face different evolutionary pressuresNatural selection created fundamental differences in male and female rolesFemales need to be nurturingMales need spatial skills for hunting
25 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Criticisms of the Evolutionary ApproachApplies to differences that apply cross-culturallyIgnores differences limited to cultures or historical periodsSocial roles hypothesisCultures assign roles based on genderSocialization practices
26 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Money & Ehrhardt’s Biosocial Theory of Gender Differentiation and DevelopmentInherit X or Y chromosome from fatherIf Y, testes secrete testosterone and MISResulting in male genitalsAt birth, social factors become importantChild is labeled by societyAt puberty sex characteristics and urges combine with label
27 Figure 13.5 Critical events in Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory of sex typing. FROM MONEY & EHRHARDT, 1972.
28 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Evidence for Biological Influences on Gender-Role DevelopmentGenetic influences50% of the differences in masculine, 0-20% of the differences in feminine self-conceptsStrong masculine self-concept and experience with spatial toys increases abilities
29 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Hormonal influencesIf females are exposed to excess androgen prenatally, result is masculinized external genitaliaAlters play behaviorIncreases interest in same-sex relationshipsInfluences career and family choices
30 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Evidence for Social-Labeling InfluencesSurgery and gender reassignment are generally successful for androgenized femalesPrior to 18 months of ageAfter age 3, very difficultMasculine gender typingLabeling of self as a boy
31 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Cultural influencesMead’s study of tribal societiesArapesh – both males and females were taught to be expressiveMundugumor – both genders were taught to be “masculine”Tchambuli – from Western standards, males more feminine, females more masculine
32 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT A psychobiosocial viewpointPrenatal hormone exposure influences brain developmentCreates different sensitivities for males and femalesCoupled with others’ beliefs, provides more exposure to gender consistent materials
33 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Freud’s Psychoanalytic TheoryMales become gender typed as they identify with their father to resolve the Oedipus complexFathers encourage feminine behavior in females (modeled after mother)Lack of research support
34 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Social Learning TheoryDirect tuition – children are encouraged and rewarded for gender-appropriate behaviorsParents begin the processSiblings and peers reinforce it
35 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Observational learning – children adopt the attitudes and behaviors of same-sex modelsAlso important is the label attached to the attitude or behaviorSame-sex models become more important at ages 5 to 7, when gender is unchanging aspect of the selfMedia influences
36 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Kohlberg’s Cognitive Developmental TheoryChildren first establish a stable gender identityBasic gender identity:By age 3, label themselves as a boy or girlGender stability:Occurs next
37 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Gender consistency:By 5-7, gender is consistent across situationsAfter achieving gender consistencyChildren actively seek out same-sex models to determine how to act
38 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Criticisms of Kohlberg’s TheoryGender-typing begins well before children acquire a mature gender identityGender reassignment is very difficult after age 3
39 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT Gender Schema Theory (Martin & Halverson)Children acquire a basic gender identityMotivates child to learn about the sexes and create gender schemasBegin as simple in-group/out-group schemasAlso create an own-sex schemaSchemas serve as scripts for processing social information
40 Figure 13. 6 Gender-schema theory in action Figure 13.6 Gender-schema theory in action. A young girl classifies new information according to an in-group/out-group schema as either “for boys” or “for girls.” Information about boys’ toys and activities is ignored, but information about toys and activities for girls in relevant to the self and so is added to an ever-larger own-sex schema. ADAPTED FROM MARTIN & HALVERSON, 1987.
41 THEORIES OF GENDER-TYPING AND GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT An Integrative TheoryBiological theories account for major biological developmentsSocial-theories account for differential reinforcement processesCognitive development explains the growth of categorization skillsGender schemas are also important as are models as children age
42 Table 13.3 An Overview of the Gender-Typing Process from the Perspective of an Integrative Theorist.
43 PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: A PRESCRIPTION FOR THE 21st CENTURY? Historically, masculinity and femininity were at opposite ends of a single dimensionsAndrogyny – sees them as 2 separate dimensions, allowing individuals to be high in both masculine and feminine traits
44 Figure 13.7 Categories of sex-role orientation based on viewing masculinity and femininity as separate dimensions of personality.
45 PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: A PRESCRIPTION FOR THE 21st CENTURY? Do Androgynous People Really Exist?In a college student sample33% were masculine men or feminine women30% were androgynous27% undifferentiated or gender-type reversed
46 Table 13.4 Sample Items from a Gender-Role Inventory for Grade-school Children. Source: Adapted from Boldizar, 1991.
47 PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: A PRESCRIPTION FOR THE 21st CENTURY? Are There Advantages to Being Androgynous?More highly adaptable to the situationHigher self-esteemMore likeablePerceived as better adjustedThe masculine traits are more important for adjustment
48 PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: A PRESCRIPTION FOR THE 21st CENTURY? Applications: On Changing Gender Role Attitudes and BehaviorParents must teach that biological sex is unimportant other than for reproductionDelay exposure to gender stereotypesInterventions work best with younger childrenPrograms work best if the adult in charge is male