Development The goal of development is to: – Close the disparity between wealthy and poor countries. How: by increasing wealth for poor countries and use that wealth to make more rapid improvements in people’s health and well- being
Human Development Index Countries are measured on a spectrum of developments. They are measured using three factors: – Standard of living – Access to knowledge – Life expectation and health GDP, Literacy and Education, Life expectancy
Inequality within Countries HDI- scores a country holistically however errors in the true measurement can exist IHDI- Inequality-adjusted HDI If IHDI is lower than HDI measurement it means there is a greater development gap within the country. Very few: very wealthy, educated, healthy, etc.
How do we measure development? Standard of living Access to knowledge Health
First Measurement: Standard of Living People in MDC’s make a much higher income, on all levels, than those in LDC’s Gross National Income- the value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters a country. GDP- is the same except it does not calculate the incoming/outgoing money. GNI- $40,000 in Developed and $5,000 in developing
How people earn their income is important There are three sectors of jobs: – Primary- agriculture – Secondary- manufacturing – Tertiary- services Most people in developing countries are employed in Primary or secondary jobs. Held with the responsibility to grown their own food they cannot work to make additional money.
Productivity With the lack of technological innovation/ availability, people in developing countries are saddled with the task of completing work with a high *value added* Produce less with more effort
Vital to the growth of countries are goods and services related to communications. Telephones enhance interaction between buyers and sellers and computers help to share information and communicated easily. 150 phones/100ppl (Developed) 60 phones/100ppl (Developing)
Health Care Access The greater wealth that is generated in developed countries is used in part to obtain health care. Healthier populations can be more economically productive. Immunization: – MDC’s: 93% – LDC’s: 83%
Gender-Related Development The status of women is lower than that of men in every country. GII- Gender Inequality Index Measures the inequality between men and women in a country. Uses three measurements: Reproductive Health Empowerment Labor
Empowerment Two indicators of empowerment: – Percentage of seats held by women in the national legislature. – Percentage of women who have completed high school
Reproductive Health Two indicators: – Maternal Mortality Ratio- number of women who dies giving birth per 1,000 – Adolescent Fertility Rate: number of births per 1,000 women age 15-19 – Reproductive health is the largest contributor to gender inequality. – United States scores poorly in both empowerment and teen births