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Earth’s Energy and Mineral Resources

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Presentation on theme: "Earth’s Energy and Mineral Resources"— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth’s Energy and Mineral Resources
Chapter 5

2 Energy The ability to create change.

3 Nonrenewable Resources
Resources that are being used faster than natural processes can replace them. Fossil fuels Fuels that form from the remains of buried organisms. Coal, oil, natural gas

4 Coal Most abundant fossil fuel in the world.
Is a rock that contains at least 50% plant remains. At current rate of use, coal will last for another 250 years.

5 Synthetic Fuels Fuels extracted from solid organic material, such as coal. Hydrocarbons are extracted from the coal to form liquid and gaseous synthetic fuel.

6 Stages of Coal Formation
As plant material decays it loses gas and moisture and increases in carbon content. Stage 1 – Peat Organic sediment with a high concentration of water and impurities Stage 2 – Lignite Soft, brown coal formed from the burial and pressurization of peat Stage 3 - Bituminous Coal Soft coal that is compact, black, and brittle Stage 4 – Anthracite Cleanest burning coal because it has the highest carbon content

7 Oil Thick, black liquid formed from the buried remains of microscopic marine organisms. Composed of hydrocarbons.

8 Natural Gas Often forms with oil. Composed of hydrocarbons.
Enough natural gas is located in the US to last about 60 more years.

9 Formation of Oil and Natural Gas
Tiny marine organisms called plankton die and are buried by sediment. Pressure and heat change the organisms to natural gas and oil. Because both oil and gas are lighter than water, they move toward the surface of the earth. While moving up, they may be trapped under an folder layer of impermeable rock such as shale. Shale is known as a caprock. The rock layer underneath the caprock is known as a reservoir rock.

10 Coal Mining Strip mining
Used when coal deposits are close to the surface. Layers of soil and rock are removed and piled to the side Coal is removed Soil is replaced and trees are planted through land reclamation.

11 Coal Mining Underground coal mining
Tunnels are dug in order to remove the coal. Drift mining Coal close to the surface is removed through horizontal openings in the sides of hills or mountains. Slope mining An angled opening and air shaft are made in the side of the mountain to remove the coal.

12 Drilling for Oil and Gas
Wells are drilled down to rock layers that may have oil and gas deposits. Wells are lined with pipe to prevent collapse. Once the targeted layer is reached, equipment to control the flow of oil. Surrounding rock is fractured to allow oil and gas to flow into the well. Oil and gas are pumped to the surface.

13 Fossil Fuel Reserves Fossil Fuel Reserve Fossil Fuel Resource
Amount of a fossil fuel that can be extracted at a profit using current technology. Fossil Fuel Resource Fossil fuels that are concentrated enough that they can be extracted in useful amounts.

14 Methane Hydrates Stable molecules found trapped in ice structures in ocean floor sediments Form under relatively low temps and high pressures. Estimated to contain more carbon than in all current fossil fuel deposits combined.

15 Nuclear Energy Nuclear fission
The splitting of heavy elements to produce energy. Carried out in nuclear power plants using uranium. Uranium fuel rods sit in water inside a nuclear reactor. Neutrons are fired into the fuel rod, splitting the uranium atoms which produces heat and releases more neutrons to hit other atoms. Heat causes the water to produce steam which drives a turbine, which turns a generator that produces energy. Process produced radioactive wastes that must be stored at least 10,000 years.

16 Nuclear Energy Fusion Materials with low mass are fused to produce a substance with higher mass. Occurs naturally in the sun (hydrogen is fused into helium).

17 Inexhaustible Energy Resources
Energy sources that are constant and will not run out. Sun Wind Water Geothermal

18 Solar Energy Solar cells Disadvantages
Actively collect energy from the sun and transform it into electricity. Disadvantages Only works when sunlight is available

19 Wind Energy Windmills Wind Farm Disadvantages
Use wing to produce energy. Wind Farm Large number of windmills in one area. Disadvantages Not consistent Wind must blow at certain speeds

20 Energy from Water Hydroelectric Energy Disadvantages
Electricity produced with water power. Water released through dams turn turbines which then turn generators that produce electricity. Disadvantages Environmental concerns with loss of habitat, increased erosion, and increased sediment deposition.

21 Energy from the Earth Geothermal energy
Energy obtained using hot magma or hot, dry rocks inside the Earth. Heated groundwater produced steam which is used to turn turbines which turn generators which produce electricity.

22 Renewable Energy Resources
Energy sources that can be replaced in nature or by humans in a relatively short period of time (within the lifetime of a human).

23 Biomass Energy Energy derived from burning organic materials such as wood, alcohol, and garbage.

24 Wood Disadvantages: Small particles are released into the air when burned. Habitat is destroyed.

25 Alcohol Gasohol Disadvantages
Ethanol, produced during the distillation of corn, mixed with gasoline Disadvantages Currently takes abundant energy to produce

26 Garbage Approximately 2/3 of garbage is burnable.
Garbage can be burned to heat water, producing steam used to drive generators. Disadvantages Air pollution and heavy metals

27 Mineral Resources A deposit of useful minerals

28 Metallic Mineral Resources
Ores Deposits in which minerals exist in large enough amounts to be mined for profit. Mineral must be in demand Enough mineral must exist to make mining profitable Must be fairly easy to separate from rest of the material

29 Metallic Mineral Resources
Refining Ore After the ore is mined, it is crushed and waster rock (called gangue) is removed Once the mineral is removed it is refined in processes such as smelting in order to be as pure as possible.

30 Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Any mineral resources not used as fuels or as sources of metal. Divided into two groups: Industrial minerals Building materials

31 Nonmetallic Mineral Resources
Examples of Industrial Minerals Sylvite is used in fertilizers Halite is used for various salts Corundum and garnet are used as abrasives Examples of Building Materials Aggregate and limestone in concrete Gypsum in plaster and wallboard Various rocks as building blocks/sheets

32 Recycling Mineral Resources
Using old materials to make new ones Advantages: Reduces the demand for new mineral resources Uses less energy to make product Profit

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