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**Heat Engines, Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics**

Chapter 18 Heat Engines, Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

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**First Law of Thermodynamics – Review**

Review: The First Law is a statement of Conservation of Energy The Law places no restrictions on the types of energy conversions that can occur In reality, only certain types of energy conversions are observed to take place Some events (processes) in one direction are more probable than those in the opposite direction

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**William Thomson, Lord Kelvin**

1824 – 1907 Physicist and mathematician Proposed the use of absolute temperature scale Now named for him Work in thermodynamics led to idea that energy cannot spontaneously pass from colder to hotter objects

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Heat Engine A heat engine is a device that takes in energy by heat, and, operating in a cycle, expels a fraction of that energy by means of work A heat engine carries some working substance through a cyclical process

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Heat Engine, cont. The working substance absorbs energy by heat from a high temperature energy reservoir (Qh) Work is done by the engine (Weng) Energy is expelled by heat to a lower temperature reservoir (Qc)

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**Heat Engine, cont. Since it is a cyclical process, ΔEint = 0**

Its initial and final internal energies are the same Therefore, Qnet = Weng The work done by the engine equals the net energy absorbed by the engine The work is equal to the area enclosed by the curve of the PV diagram If the working substance is a gas

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**Thermal Efficiency of a Heat Engine**

Thermal efficiency is defined as the ratio of the net work done by the engine during one cycle to the energy input at the higher temperature We can think of the efficiency as the ratio of what you gain to what you give

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More About Efficiency In practice, all heat engines expel only a fraction of the input energy by mechanical work Therefore, their efficiency is always less than 100% To have e = 100%, QC must be 0

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**Second Law: Kelvin-Planck Form**

It is impossible to construct a heat engine that, operating in a cycle, produces no other effect than the absorption of energy from a reservoir and the performance of an equal amount of work Means that Qc cannot equal 0 Some Qc must be expelled to the environment Means that e cannot equal 100%

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**Perfect Heat Engine No energy is expelled to the cold reservoir**

It takes in some amount of energy and does an equal amount of work e = 100% It is an impossible engine

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**Reversible and Irreversible Processes**

A reversible process is one for which the system can be returned to its initial state along the same path And one for which every point along some path is an equilibrium state An irreversible process does not meet these requirements Most natural processes are known to be irreversible Reversible process are an idealization, but some real processes are good approximations

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**Reversible and Irreversible Processes, cont**

A real process that is a good approximation of a reversible one will occur very slowly The system is always very nearly in an equilibrium state Adding and removing the grains of sand is an example of a real process that can occur slowly enough to be reversible

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**Reversible and Irreversible Processes, Summary**

The reversible process is an idealization All real processes on Earth are irreversible

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Sadi Carnot 1796 – 1832 First to show the quantitative relationship between work and heat Book reviewed importance of the steam engine

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**Carnot Engine A theoretical engine developed by Sadi Carnot**

A heat engine operating in an ideal, reversible cycle (now called a Carnot Cycle) between two reservoirs is the most efficient engine possible This sets an upper limit on the efficiencies of all other engines

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Work by a Carnot Cycle The net work done by a working substance taken through the Carnot cycle is the greatest amount of work possible for a given amount of energy supplied to the substance at the upper temperature

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Carnot Cycle Overview of the processes in a Carnot Cycle

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**Carnot Cycle, A to B A to B is an isothermal expansion**

The gas is placed in contact with the high temperature reservoir, Th The gas absorbs heat |Qh| The gas does work WAB in raising the piston

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**Carnot Cycle, B to C B to C is an adiabatic expansion**

The base of the cylinder is replaced by a thermally nonconducting wall No heat enters or leaves the system The temperature falls from Th to Tc The gas does work WBC

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Carnot Cycle, C to D The gas is placed in contact with the cold temperature reservoir C to D is an isothermal compression The gas expels energy QC Work WCD is done on the gas

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**Carnot Cycle, D to A D to A is an adiabatic compression**

The gas is again placed against a thermally nonconducting wall So no heat is exchanged with the surroundings The temperature of the gas increases from TC to Th The work done on the gas is WDA

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**Carnot Cycle, PV Diagram**

The work done by the engine is shown by the area enclosed by the curve, Weng The net work is equal to |Qh| – |Qc| DEint = 0 for the entire cycle

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**Efficiency of a Carnot Engine**

Carnot showed that the efficiency of the engine depends on the temperatures of the reservoirs Temperatures must be in Kelvins All Carnot engines operating between the same two temperatures will have the same efficiency

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**Notes About Carnot Efficiency**

Efficiency is 0 if Th = Tc Efficiency is 100% only if Tc = 0 K Such reservoirs are not available Efficiency is always less than 100% The efficiency increases as Tc is lowered and as Th is raised In most practical cases, Tc is near room temperature, 300 K So generally Th is raised to increase efficiency

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**Real Engine vs. Carnot Engine**

All real engines are less efficient than the Carnot engine because they all operate irreversibly so as to complete a cycle in a brief time interval In addition, real engines are subject to practical difficulties that decrease efficiency Friction is an example

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**Heat Pumps and Refrigerators**

Heat engines can run in reverse This is not a natural direction of energy transfer Must put some energy into a device to do this Devices that do this are called heat pumps or refrigerators Examples A refrigerator is a common type of heat pump An air conditioner is another example of a heat pump

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**Heat Pump Process Energy is extracted from the cold reservoir, QC**

Energy is transferred to the hot reservoir, Qh Work must be done on the engine, W

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**Coefficient of Performance**

The effectiveness of a heat pump is described by a number called the coefficient of performance (COP) In heating mode, the COP is the ratio of the heat transferred in to the work required

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**COP, Heating Mode COP is similar to efficiency**

Qh is typically higher than W Values of COP are generally greater than 1 It is possible for them to be less than 1 We would like the COP to be as high as possible

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**COP, Carnot in Heating Mode**

A Carnot cycle heat engine operating in reverse constitutes an ideal heat pump It will have the highest possible COP for the temperatures between which it operates

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COP, Cooling Mode In cooling mode, you “gain” energy from a cold temperature reservoir A good refrigerator should have a high COP Typical values are 5 or 6

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**COP, Carnot in Cooling Mode**

The highest possible COP is again the Carnot engine running in reverse As the difference in temperature approaches zero, the theoretical COP approaches infinity In practice, COP’s are limited to values below 10

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**Second Law – Clausius Form**

Energy does not flow spontaneously by heat from a cold object to a hot object The Second Law can be stated in multiple ways, all can be shown to be equivalent The form you should use depends on the application

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**Perfect Heat Pump Takes energy from the cold reservoir**

Expels an equal amount of energy to the hot reservoir No work is done This is an impossible heat pump

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**The Second Law of Thermodynamics, Summary**

Establishes which processes do and which do not occur Some processes can occur in either direction according to the First Law They are observed to occur only in one direction Real processes proceed in a preferred direction This directionality is governed by the Second Law

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Entropy Entropy, S, is a state variable related to the Second Law of Thermodynamics The importance of entropy grew with the development of statistical mechanics A main result is isolated systems tend toward disorder and entropy is a natural measure of this disorder

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**Microstates vs. Macrostates**

A microstate is a particular configuration of the individual constituents of the system A macrostate is a description of the conditions from a macroscopic point of view It makes use of macroscopic variables such as pressure, density, and temperature for gases

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**Microstates vs. Macrostates, cont**

For a given macrostate, a number of microstates are possible The number of microstates associated with a given macrostate is not the same for all macrostates When all possible macrostates are examined, it is found that the most probable macrostate is that with the largest number of possible microstates

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**Microstates vs. Macrostates, Probabilities**

High-probability macrostates are disordered macrostates Low-probability macrostates are ordered macrostates All physical processes tend toward more probable macrostates for the system and its surroundings The more probable macrostate is always one of higher disorder

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**Entropy Entropy is a measure of disorder of a state**

Entropy can be defined using macroscopic concepts of heat and temperature Entropy can also be defined in terms of the number of microstates, W, in a macrostate whose entropy is S S = kB ln W

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**Entropy and the Second Law**

The entropy of the Universe increases in all real processes This is another statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics The change in entropy in an arbitrary reversible process is

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**DS For A Reversible Cycle**

DS = 0 for any reversible cycle In general, This integral symbol indicates the integral is over a closed path

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**Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes**

To calculate the change in entropy in a real system, remember that entropy depends only on the state of the system Do not use Q, the actual energy transfer in the process Distinguish this from Qr, the amount of energy that would have been transferred by heat along a reversible path Qr is the correct value to use for DS

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**Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes, cont**

In general, the total entropy and therefore the total disorder always increase in an irreversible process The total entropy of an isolated system undergoes a change that cannot decrease This is another statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

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**Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes, final**

If the process is irreversible, then the total entropy of an isolated system always increases In a reversible process, the total entropy of an isolated system remains constant The change in entropy of the Universe must be greater than zero for an irreversible process and equal to zero for a reversible process

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**Heat Death of the Universe**

Ultimately, the entropy of the Universe should reach a maximum value At this value, the Universe will be in a state of uniform temperature and density All physical, chemical, and biological processes will cease The state of perfect disorder implies that no energy is available for doing work This state is called the heat death of the Universe

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**DS in Free Expansion Consider an adiabatic free expansion**

The process is neither reversible or quasi-static W = 0 and Q = 0 Need to find Qr, choose an isothermal process

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**DS in Free Expansion, cont**

For an isothermal process, this becomes Since Vf > Vi, DS is positive This indicates that both the entropy and the disorder of the gas increase as a result of the irreversible adiabatic expansion

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**Atmosphere as a Heat Engine**

The Earth’s atmosphere can be modeled as a heat engine The energy from the Sun undergoes various processes Reflected Absorbed by the air or the surface

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**Energy Balance in the Atmosphere**

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**Work Done on the Atmosphere**

One process is missing from the previous energy balance The various processes result in a small amount of work done on the atmosphere This work appears as the kinetic energy of the prevailing winds in the atmosphere

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**Schematic, Atmosphere as a Heat Engine**

The amount of incoming solar energy converted to kinetic energy of the winds is about 0.5% It is temporarily kinetic energy, eventually radiated into space As radiation

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**Efficiency of the Atmospheric Heat Engine**

The warm reservoir is the surface The cold reservoir is empty space The efficiency can be calculated:

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