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British Government Great Britain Ireland Scotland Wales England.

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Presentation on theme: "British Government Great Britain Ireland Scotland Wales England."— Presentation transcript:


2 British Government

3 Great Britain Ireland Scotland Wales England

4 Constitutional Monarchy

5 Began – 1688 Glorious Rev. Most Progressive Ruler limited by law Monarch needed Parliament’s consent Parliament needed monarch’s consent

6 Previous Limits 1215 Magna Carta King John limits king’s power English Bill of Rights Secured Constitutional Monarchy






12 The English Cabinet

13 The Cabinet Executive Committee Originally temporary Acted in ruler’s name Only represented majority party Why: Stalemate possible b/w Parliament and Monarch

14 The Cabinet Began: Wm. and Mary Most influential ministers Appointed and dismissed at will End of rule: for support chose majority party members (Whigs) Assured king majority vote *Cabinet now link b/w king and Parliament

15 Rise of the Prime Minister

16 Background 1 minister dominated cabinet during Hanoverian Dynasty German dynasty Last Stuart Anne died 1714 George I & II- little English, no interest in British affairs Lack of knowledge- leads to reliance on ministers

17 Prime Minster Emerges Sir Robert Walpole 1721 George I appts. him first Lord of the Treasury 1721-1741 unofficial ruler of Britain First Prime Minister Set pattern for modern British politics

18 The System Cabinet – center of power and policy making Leader of majority party in Parliament led cabinet as prime minister

19 A Summary Works best if only 2 parties Advantages Executive, majority party will get legislation passed Disadvantages Minority has little say Possibility of frequent elections (party not support PM, party balance)

20 George III Tried to take back power US issue- “No taxation w/out representation” Average GB citizens did not have these rights Ulterior motive- break away from mercantilism

21 British Reform Legislation

22 Reform Bill 1832 Why: pressure from merchants & factory owners Purpose: set up new districts for electing members of Parliament Old districts- medieval villages now empty (owner had vote) New cities (Manchester, Sheffield) no elected reps (grew after districts formed)

23 Reform Bill 1832 Significance End to injustice- new cities got vote More men gained suffrage (men who paid certain amount in rent gained vote, not just landowners) Most all middle class voted now 20% voting (2x’s more)

24 Reform Act of 1867 Why: Growing prosperity & social responsibility of working class Some politicians convinced to extend suffrage Reform League (John Bright)- pushed Parliamentary action

25 Reform Act of 1867 1866 Lord Russell introduces idea- defeated by Conservatives & antidemocratic Liberals Conservative Disraeli (led House of Commons) gets bill passed Accepted liberal amendments Voting 1,43 mil to 2.47 mil (working class)

26 Reform Act of 1867 Disraeli wanted Conservatives to get support of new voters Saw change inevitable- let Conservatives get credit (responsive to social change) Believed growing mid class would be Conservative

27 Disraeli v. Gladstone

28 Gladstone Liberal PM 1868-1874 Began as a Conservative Wanted old institutions opened 1870 Exams for Civil Service 1871 Abolished purchase of officers’ commission 1872 Secret Ballot Anglican requirement dropped for universities

29 Gladstone Education Act of 1870 Govt. est. and run elementary schools (instead of church) Church had been given little money= inadequate schools NO education in areas no church Why? Democracy does NOT work with society of illiterates

30 Gladstone Goals: Remove old abuses without destroying existing institutions Citizens compete on ability Recognizes trade unions Stress individualism, free trade, competition (solve social probs) Significance- state-building brings loyalty


32 Disraeli Conservative PM 1874-1880 Favored paternalistic legislation Action: few specific programs Richard Cross- Home Sec. Responsible for social legislation

33 Disraeli 1875 Public Health Act- state interfere on private property in matters of health, well-being 1875 Artisans Dwelling Act- State provide housing to working class 1875 Conservatives offer protections to trade unions Allowed to strike


35 Loss of Power by House of Lords

36 David Lloyd George Liberal Minister of Finance 1909- Prime Minister Social Welfare

37 Social Welfare Program Old-age pensions Accident/illness insurance for workers Unemployment benefits FUNDING: income taxes (wealthy) “People’s Budget”

38 People’s Budget Only House of Commons passed **Issue- place of House of Lords in British govt. Liberals want to limit power Liberals win next 2 elections but lords refuse reforms King threatened to appt. new liberal- minded lords (pass reform) Lords vote to limit own power

39 People’s Budget Resolved- House of Lords only delay bills passed by House of Commons After 2 yrs. bills become law **One step closer to fully democratic govt.

40 Friday Papers Back Notebooks Back Get out Greek DBQ documents POV

41 Irish Question

42 The Basics Ireland controlled by British for nearly 300 years 1801- directly from London 1870’s Irish nationalists seek home rule Irish Home Rule Party- seek independence Liberals support home rule Gladstone’s bills defeated

43 Issues Prices of farm products drop 1000’s can’t pay rent 2000 families pushed out of homes Angry farmers, nationalists become violent 1870-1880’s- Protestants and Catholics work together for home rule

44 A Change 1900’s Irish Protestants turn against home rule Lived in N. Ireland (Ulster) Fear being a minority 1914 Home Rule bill passed WWI broke put month before bill to take effect

45 Social Issues Anglo Saxons (British)- English Celts (Irish)- Gaelic English see Irish as inferior, lazy people (treat poorly) English- Protestant Irish- Catholic (no representation, no vote)

46 Political Issues Protestants (minority) and Catholics (majority) Who control govt? Home Rule? 1936 Ireland gained independence (N. Ireland independent for Protestants)

47 Economic Issues Gladstone Tenant Laws- land back to Irish Henry & Elizabeth- bought out Irish land & est. British farms Cromwell finished conquest Irish wanted British landlords out

48 British Empire

49 Empire Colonies key to prosperity- benefit Britain Mercantilism 1700’s- focus is on gaining & controlling colonies 1763 British strongest colonial and navel power in Europe

50 Empire Size Extending on Indian subcontinent N. America- east of Mississippi Islands in Caribbean- SUGAR Canada- largest part of Empire Navigation Laws 1660 & 1663- tight control of colonies

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